The Survey of Cornwall The Second Book Part 2 by Richard Carew
THE SVRVEY OF CORNWALL.
The second Booke Part 2.
SOme impute the force of Powder vnto this, that the same is conuerted, at an instant, from his earthy substance, to a fiery, and from the fire, into ayre; euery of which changes, requireth a greater enlargement, one then other: wherefore it finding a barre, ouer, vnder, and on the back and sides, by the pieces strong imprisonment, by consequence breaketh forth with a sudden violence, at the mouth, where the way is least stopped, & driueth before it, the vnsetled obstacle of the bullet, imparting thereunto a portion of his fury. To which (through want of a probable Etymon) I may, in part, resemble the hundred of Powder, not only for the names sake, but also because this parcel of the Cornish earth extendeth it selfe wider, and compriseth more parishes, then any other Hundred of the shire, as stretching East. and West, from Foy to Falmouth: and South and North, welnere from one sea to the other.
In describing the same, we must begin where we left, to wit, at Foy hauen, in Cornish, Foath. It receyueth this name of the riuer, and bestoweth the same on the town. His entrance is garded with Block-houses, & that on the townes side, as also the towne it selfe, fortified & fenced with ordinance. The commendation of which industry, is principally due to the prouidence and direction of M. Wil. Treffry, a Gent. that hath vowed his rare gifts of learning, wisdome, & courage, to the good of his country, & made proofe thereof in many occurrents, & to whose iudicious corrections, these my notes haue bin not a little beholden. His faire & ancient house, Castle-wise builded  and sufficiently flanked, ouerlooketh the towne and hauen with a pleasant prospect, and yet is not excluded from the healthfull ayre, and vse of the country, which occasioned his auncestours (though endowed elsewhere, with large reuennues, of their owne and their wiues inheritance) for many descents, to make, here their ordinary residence, as is witnessed by their toombe-stones, which I haue seen in the church. One of them, about 145. yeeres sithence, valiantly defended this his dwelling, against the French, what time they had surprized the rest of the towne.
Hee married one of Tremaynes heires: his father, the heir of
Tresithny; his graundfather, the daughter of Killigrew: and beareth
S. a Cheuron betweene three Hawthornes A.
But I will returne to the towne. During the warlike raignes of our two valiant Edwards, the first & third, the Foyens addicted themselues to backe their Princes quarrell, by coping with the enemy at sea, and made returne of many prizes: which purchases hauing aduanced them to a good estate of wealth, the same was (when the quieter conditioned times gaue meanes) heedfully and diligently employed, and bettered, by the more ciuill trade of marchandise; and in both these vocations they so fortunately prospered, that it is reported, 60. tall ships did, at one time, belong to the harbour, and that they assisted the siege of Callais, with 47. saile. Heereon, a full purse begetting a stout stomack, our Foyens tooke heart at grasse, and chauncing about that time (I speake vpon the credit of tradition) to sayle neere Rye, and Winchelsea, they stifly refused to vaile their bonets at the summons of those townes; which contempt (by the better enabled Sea-farers, reckoned intolerable) caused the Ripiers to make out with might and mayne against them; howbeit, with a more hardy onset, then happy issue: for the Foy men gaue them so rough entertaynment at their welcome, that they were glad to forsake patch, without bidding farewell: the merit of which exploit, afterwards entitled them Gallants of Foy: and (it may bee) they fought to eternize this memorable fact, after the Greeke and Romane maner, by inuesting the towne of Golant with that name: notwithstanding, quaere, whether a causelesse ambition in the posteritie, turned not rather Golant into Gallant, for their greater glory. Once, the townesmen vaunt, that for reskuing certaine ships of Rye from the Normans in Henrie the thirds time, they beare the armes, and enioy part of the priuiledges appertaining to the Cinque ports, whereof there is some memorie in their Chauncell window, with the name of Fisart Bagga, their principall Commaunder in that seruice. Moreouer, the prowesse of one Nicholas, sonne to a widdow, neere Foy, is deskanted vpon, in an old three mans songs, namely, how he fought brauely at sea, with Iohn Dory (a Genowey, as I coniecture) set forth by Iohn the French king, and (after much bloudshed on both sides) tooke, and slew him, in reuenge of the great rauine, and crueltie, which hee had forecommitted, vpon the English mens goods and bodies. Yet their so often good successe, sometimes tasted the sawce of crosser speeding; for Tho. Walsingham telleth vs, that Sir Hugh Calueley, and Sir Th. Percy, deputed to gard the sea, by R. the 2. Anno. 1379. chanced there to meete a Cornish barge, belonging to Foy harbour, which hauing worne out his victuals, and  time, limited for the like seruice, was then sayling homewards, neither would be entreated by those knights, to ioyne companie with them: howbeit they bought this refusall verie deare. For no sooner was the English fleete past out of sight, but that a Flemmish man of warre lighted vpon them, and (after a long, and strong resistance) ouermastered them as well, at last in force, as they did at first in number, tooke the Barge, sunk it, and slaughtered all the Saylers, one onely boy, excepted, who in the heate of the bickering, seeing which way the game would goe, secretly stole aboord the Flemming, and closely hid himselfe amongst the ballast. Ouer a while, this Pirate cast Anker in an English harbor, where the boy, hearing his Countrimens voice, that were come aboord, riseth from his new buriall, bewrayeth the fact, & so wrought meanes, for their punishment, and his owne deliuery.
Not long after, our Foy gallants, vnable to beare a low sayle, in their fresh gale of fortune, began to skum the Seas, with their often piracies, (auowing themselues vpon the Earle of Warwicke, whose ragged staffe is yet to be seene, pourtrayed in many places of their Church Steeple, and in diuers priuate houses) as also to violate their dutie at land, by insolent disobedience, to the Princes Officers, cutting off (amongst other pranckes) a Pursiuants eares: whereat king Edward the fourth conceiued such indignation, as hee sent Commissioners vnto Lostwithiel, (a towne thereby) who, vnder pretence of vsing their seruice, in sea affaires, trained thither the greatest number of the Burgesses; and no sooner come, then laid hold on, and in hold, their goods were confiscated, one Harrington executed, the chaine of their hauen remoued to Dartmouth, & their wonted iolity transformed into a sudden misery: from which they striued a long time, in vaine, to releeue themselues: but now of late yeres doe more and more aspire to a great amendment of their former defeats, though not to an equall height of their first aboundance.
Where I may not passe in silence, the commendable deserts of Master Rashleigh the elder, descended from a yonger brother of an ancient house in Deuon; for his industrious iudgement and aduenturing, in trade of marchandise, first opened a light and way, to the townesmens newe thriuing, and left his sonne large wealth, and possessions; who (together with a dayly bettering his estate) conuerteth the same to hospitality, and other actions fitting a Gent. well affected to his God, Prince, and Countrey. He married the daughter of Bonithon; his father, of Lanyne, and beareth S. a plaine Crosse betweene 2. Croissants A.
Anno 28. H. 6. there was an Act of Parliament made, to restraine the abuses of sea-officers, in wrong exactions at Foy, and some other hauens.
The Lord of Pomier, a Norman, encouraged by the [1457.] ciuill warres, wherewith our Realme was then distressed, furnished a nauy within the riuer of Sayne, and with the same in the night, burned a part of Foy, and other houses confyning: but vpon approch of the countryes forces, raised the next day by the Sherife, he made speed away to his ships, and with his ships to his home.
In a high way neere this towne, there lieth a big and long moore stone, containing the remainder of certaine ingraued letters, purporting some memorable antiquity, as it should seeme, but past ability of reading.
Not many yeres sithence, a Gentleman, dwelling not farre off, was perswaded, by some information, or imagination, that treasure lay hidden vnder this stone: wherefore, in a faire Moone-shine night, thither with certaine good fellowes hee hyeth to dig it vp; a working they fall, their labour shortneth, their hope increaseth, a pot of Gold is the least of their expectation. But see the chance. In midst of their toyling, the skie gathereth clouds, the Moone-light is ouer-cast with darkenesse, downe fals a mightie showre, vp riseth a blustering tempest, the thunder cracketh, the lightning flameth: in conclusion, our money-seekers washed, in stead of loden; or loden with water, in stead of yellow earth, and more afraid, then hurt, are forced to abandon their enterprise, and seeke shelter of the next house they could get into. Whether this proceeded from a naturall accident, or a working of the diuell, I will not vndertake to define. It may bee, God giueth him such power ouer those, who begin a matter, vpon couetousnesse to gaine by extraordinarie meanes, and prosecute it with a wrong, in entring and breaking another mans land, without his leaue, and direct the end thereof, to the princes defrauding, whose prerogatiue challengeth these casualties.
A little beyond Foy, the land openeth a large sandie drab Bay, for the Sea to ouer-flow, which, and the village adioyning, are therethrough aptly termed Trewardreth, in English, The Sandie towne. Elder times, of more deuotion then knowledge, here founded a religious house, which, in King Henrie the eights raigne, vnderwent the common downefall.
I haue receiued credible information, that some three yeeres sithence, certaine hedges deuiding a closse on the seaside hereabouts, chanced, in their digging, vpon a great chest of stone, artificially ioyned, whose couer, they (ouer-greedy for booty) rudely brake, and therewithall a great earthen pot enclosed, which was guilded and graued with letters, defaced by this misaduenture, and ful of a black earth, the ashes (doubtles) as that, the vrna of some famous personage.
Vpon a side of this bay, one M. Peter Beuill first began the experiment of making a saltwater pond, induced thereunto, by obseruing that the high Summer tydes brought with them young Basses and Millets, whom at their ebbing, they left behinde in little pits of the euen ground, where they would liue for many weekes without any reuisitation of the sea: who, as he bettered this naturall patterne, so did I his artificiall; but yet with a thankefull acknowledgement, by whome I haue profited.
Lostwithiel should seeme to fetch his originall from the Cornish Lostwithiall, which in English, soundeth a Lions tayle: for as the Earle of this prouince gaue the Lyon in armes, and the Lions principall strength (men, say) consisteth in his tayle; so this towne claymeth the precedence, and his Lords chiefest residence, & the place which he entrusted with his Exchequer, and where his wayghtier affaires were managed. Maioralty, markets, faires, and nomination of Burgesses for the parliament, it hath common with the most: Coynage of Tynne, onely with three, others; but the gayle for the whole Stannary, and keeping of the County Courts, it selfe alone. Yet all this can hardly rayse it to a tolerable condition of wealth and inhabitance. Wherefore I will  detayne you no longer, then vntill I haue shewed you a solemne custome in times past here yeerely obserued, and onely of late daies discontinued, which was thus:
Vpon little Easter Sunday, the Freeholders of the towne and mannour, by themselues or their deputies, did there assemble: amongst whom, one (as it fell to his lot by turne) brauely apparelled, gallantly mounted, with a Crowne on his head, a scepter in his hand, a sword borne before him, and dutifully attended by all the rest also on horseback, rode thorow the principall streete to the Church: there the Curate in his best beseene, solemnely receiued him at the Churchyard stile, and conducted him to heare diuine seruice: after which, he repaired with the same pompe, to a house foreprouided for that purpose, made a feast to his attendants, kept the tables end himselfe, and was serued with kneeling, assay, & all other rites due to the estate of a Prince: with which dinner, the ceremony ended, and euery man returned home again. The pedigree of this vsage is deriued from so many descents of ages, that the cause and authour outreach remembrance: howbeit, these circumstances offer a coniecture, that it should betoken the royalties appertaining to the honour of Cornwall.
M. Wil. Kendals hospitality, while he liued, and here kept house, deserueth a speciall remembrance, because, for store of resort and franknes of entertainment, it exceeded all others of his sort.
This towne anno 11. H. 7, was by act of Parliament assigned, to keepe the publike waights and measures, ordayned for the Countie.
Lostwithiel subiected it selfe to the commaund of Restormel Castle, alias, Lestormel, sometimes the Dukes principal house. It is seated in a park, vpon the plaine neck of a hill, backed to the Westwards, with another, somewhat higher, & falling euery other way, to end in a valley, watered by the fishfull riuer of Foy. His base court is rather to be coniectured, then discerned, by the remnant of some fewe ruines; amongst which, an ouen of 14. foot largenes, through his exceeding proportion, prooueth the like hospitality of those dayes. The inner court grounded vpon an intrenched rocke, was formed round, had his vtter wall thick, strong, and garretted: his flat roofe couered with lead, and his large windowes taking their light inwards. It consisted of two stories, beisdes the vaults, and admitted entrance and issue, by one onely gate, fenced with a Portcouliz. Water was conueyed thither, by a conduit, from the higher ground adioyning. Certes, it may moue compassion, that a Palace, so healthfull for aire, so delightfull for prospect, so necessary for commodities, so fayre (in regard of those dayes) for building, and so strong for defence, should in time of secure peace, and vnder the protection of his naturall Princes, be wronged with those spoylings, then which, it could endure no greater, at the hands of any forrayne and deadly enemy: for the Parke is disparked, the timber rooted vp, the conduit pipes taken away, the roofe made sale of, the planchings rotten, the wals fallen downe, and the hewed stones of the windowes, dournes & clauels, pluct out to serue priuate buildings: onely there remayneth an vtter defacement, to complayne vpon this vnregarded distresse. It now appertayneth by lease, to Master Samuel, who maried Halse : his father (a wise and pleasant conceited Gent.) matched with Tremayne.
After wee haue quitted Restormel, Roche becomes our next place of soiourne, though hardly inuiting, with promise of any better entertainement, then the name carieth written in his forehead, to wit, a huge, high and steepe rock, seated in a playne, girded on either side, with (as it were) two substitutes, and meritorious (no doubt) for the Hermite, who dwelt on the top thereof, were it but in regard of such an vneasie climing to his cell and Chappell, a part of whose naturall wals is wrought out of the rock itselfe.
Neere the foote of Roche, there lyeth a rock, leuell with the ground aboue, and hollow downwards, with a winding depth, which contayneth water, reported by some of the neighbours, to ebbe and flowe as the sea. Of these, as another Cornish wonder.
You neighbour-scorners, holy-prowd,
Goe people Roche’s cell,
Farre from the world, neere to the heau’ns,
There, Hermits, may you dwell.
Is’t true that Spring in rock hereby,
Doth tide-wise ebbe and flow?
Or haue wee fooles with lyers met?
Fame saies it: be it so.
From hence ascending easily the space of a mile, you shall haue wonne the top of the Cornish Archbeacon Hainborough, which (as little to great) may for prospect compare with Rama in Palestina, Henius in Medica, Collalto in Italy, and Sceafel in the Ile of Man: for if the weathers darkenesse bounde not your eye-sight, within his ordynarie extent, you shall thence plainely discerne, to the Eastwards, a great part of Deuon, to the West, very neere the lands end, to the North and South, the Ocean, and sundrie Ilands scattered therein, wherethrough it passeth also for a wonder.
Haynboroughs wide prospect, at once,
Both feedes, and gluts your eye,
With Cornwals whole extent, as it
In length and breadth doth lie.
At Ladocke, in this Hundred, dwelleth master Peter Courtney, who doubly fetcheth his pedigree, from that honourable flocke, and embraceth the contentment of a quiet priuate life, before the publike charge in his Countrie, due to his calling, and to which long sithence, he hath bene called. His father maried (as I haue shewed) the daughter & coheir of Trethurffe, himselfe Reskimers, his sonne the daughter of Saintabyn: he beareth O. three Torteaux, and a File with as many Lambeaux, B.
Leo Aser, in the delightfull, and approued description of his Countrie, telleth vs of a blind guide, who would readily and safely conduct straunger trauailers, ouer the huge Deserts, with which that region aboundeth, and that the meanes he vsed, was, in certaine distances, to smell at the sand, which gaue him perfect notice of the places.
Likewise, Lewes Guicciardin, in his booke of Netherland, maketh report of one Martyn Catelyn, borne at Weruicke in Flaunders, who falling blind before he attained two yeeres age, grew, notwithstanding, by his owne industrie, without any teacher, to such a perfection in Timber handy-craft, as he could, not only turne,  and make Virginals, Organes, Vyolons, and such like Instruments, with great facilitie, order, and proportion, but also tune, and handsomely play vpon them, and besides, deuised many seruiceable tooles for his science.
These examples I thrust out before me, to make way, for a not much lesse straunge relation, touching one Edward Bone, sometimes seruant to the said master Courtney: which fellow (as by the assertion of diuers credible persons, I haue beene informed) deafe from his cradle, and consequently dumbe, would yet bee one of the first, to learne, and expresse to his master, any newes that was sturring in the Countrie: especially, if there went speech of a Sermon, within some myles distance, hee would repaire to the place, with the soonest, and setting himselfe directly against the Preacher, looke him stedfastly in the face, while his Sermon lasted: to which religious zeale, his honest life was also answerable. For, as hee shunned all lewd parts himselfe, so, if hee espied any in his fellow seruants, (which hee could and would quickely doe) his master should straightwayes know it, and not rest free from importuning, vntill, either the fellow had put away his fault, or their master his fellow. And to make his minde knowne, in this, and all other matters, hee vsed verie effectuall signes, being able therethrough, to receiue, and perform any enioyned errand. Besides, hee was afflicted with so firme a memorie, that he would not onely know any partie, whome hee had once seene, for euer after, but also make him knowne to any other, by some speciall obseruation, and difference. Vpon a brother of his, God laid the like infirmitie, but did not recompence it with the like raritie.
Somewhat neere the place of his birth, there dwelt another, so affected, or rather defected, whose name was Kempe: which two, when they chaunced to meete, would vse such kinde embracements, such strange, often, and earnest tokenings, and such heartie laughters, and other passionate gestures, that their want of a tongue, seemed rather an hinderance to others conceiuing them, then to their conceiuing one another.
Gwarnack, in this Hundred, was the Beuils ancient seate, whose two daughters and heires, married Arundel of Trerice, and Greinuile.
Wolueden, alias, Golden, fell vnto Tregian, by match with the Inheritrix thereof. Tregean signifieth the Giants towne: their sonne married in Lanherne house, their Graund-child with the L. Stourtons daughter: hee beareth Erm. on a chiefe S. three Martlets O.
It standeth in Probus Parish, whose high, and faire Church towre, of hewed Moore stone, was builded within compasse of our remembrance, by the well disposed Inhabitants: and here also dwelleth one Williams, a wealthie, and charitable Farmer, Graund-father to sixtie persons, now liuing, and able, lately to ride twelue myles in a morning, for being witnesse to the christening of a child, to whome hee was great great Graundfather.
From hence, drawing towards the South sea, wee will touch at the late Parke of Lanhadron, because there groweth an Oke, bearing his leaues speckled with white, as doth another, called Painters Oke, in the Hundred of East: but whether the former partake any supernaturall propertie, to foretoken the owners sonne insuing death, when his leaues are al of one colour (as I haue  heard some report) let those affirme, who better know it: certain it is, that diuers auncient families in England are admonished by such predictions.
Grampond, if it tooke that name from any great Bridge, hath now Nomen sine re: for the Bridge there is supported with onely a few arches, and the Corporation but halfe, replenished with Inhabitants, who may better vaunt of their townes antiquitie, then the towne of their abilitie.
Of Pentuan I haue spoken before. For the present, it harboureth master Dart, who as diuers other Gentlemen, well descended, and accommodated in Deuon, doe yet rather make choyce of a pleasing and retired equalitie in the little Cornish Angle. Hee matched with Roscarrocke.
Penwarne, in the same Parish of Meuagesy, alias, S. Meuie, and Isy (two nothing ambitious Saints, in resting satisfied with the partage of so pettie a limit) is vested in master Otwell Hill, as heire to his mother, the daughter and heire to Cosowarth, to whom it likewise accrued, by matching with the daughter and heire of that name: a seate, through his fruitfulnesse, and other appurtenances, supplying the owner large meanes of hospitalitie, and by him so imployed, who reckoned to receiue most good, when he doth it. He deriueth himselfe from a populous, and well regarded familie in Lancashire, and married the daughter of Denham: and beareth G. a Cheuron, between three Garbes Ermine.
At the adioyning Saint Tue, dwelleth master Richard Tremayn, descended from a yonger brother of Colocumb house, in Deuon, who being learned in the lawes, is yet to learne, or at least to practise, how he may make other profit thereby, then by hoording vp treasure of gratitude, in the mindfull breasts of poore and rich, on whom hee, gratis, bestoweth the fruites of his paines and knowledge. He married Coffyn, hee beareth G. three Armes in circle ioyned at the Tronkes 0. with hands proper.
Dudman, a wel-knowne foreland to most Saylers, here shouldreth out the Ocean, to shape the same a large bosome betweene it selfe, and Rame head, which are wel-neere twentie myles in distance. Amongst sundrie prouerbs, allotting an impossible time of performance, the Cornish men haue this one, When Rame-head and Dudman meet. Whose possession, yet, though not themselues, met in Sir Peers Edgecumb, as inioyning that, in right of his wife, and this, by descent from his Father.
Bodrugan, a large demaines adioyning thereunto (which I will not deriue from Sir Bars du Ganis, though the neighbours so say) was the dwelling of Sir Henrie Trenowith, a man of great liuely-hood, who chaunged his name with the house, and lost house and holding, through attainder for rebellion, against king Henrie the seuenth. The king bestowed it, by an intailed gift, vpon Sir Richard Edgecumb.
Next, lyeth the foreremembred Caryhayes (Kery haz in Cornish, signifieth to beare his seede, or as some other define it, delighting in seede) descended to M. Charles Treuanion, the present possessioner, by a long ranke of auncestors, from Arundels daughter and heire: his father married the daughter of Morgan, and sister to the first Lord Humdons wife, which brought him an honourable ally. Three of this Gentlemans elder brethren, Edward, Iohn, and Hugh, forewent him in succession  to their fathers inheritance, and passed to the better world in a single life: himselfe by matching the daughter and heire of Witchalse, whose mother was coheire to Marwood, hath raised issue vnto them, and continueth the hope of posteritie. Sir William Treuanion, his Graundsire, tooke to wife the said Sir Richard Edgecumbs daughter. The Treuanions Armes are A. a Fesse B. charged with three Escalops O. betweene two Cheurons G.
Roseland, is a circuite, containing certaine Parishes hereabouts, and benefiting the owners with his fruitfulnesse, so that though the original of his name came (perhaps) as master Camden noteth, from his former thickets, yet his present estate better resembleth a flowrie effect.
By this time we approch the limits of Falmouth Hauen, vpon one of whose Creekes, standeth the market and incorporate towne of Tregny, not specially memorable (in my knowledge) for any extraordinarie worth, or accident.
Of better regard is Truro, alias, Truru, or Trisow, as the principall towne of the Hauen, priuiledged with a Mayraltie, and benefited with the generall Westerne Sessions, Coynages, Markets, Faires, &c. The shape of the towne, and Etymon of the name, may be learned out of this Cornish propheticall rime.
Ombdina geueth try ru.
Which is to say, Truro consisteth of three streetes, and it shall in time bee said, Here Truro stood. A like mischief of a mysterie, they obserue, that in taking T. from the towne, there resteth ru, ru, which in English soundeth, Woe, woe: but whatsoeuer shall become therof hereafter, for the present, I hold it to haue got the start in wealth of any other Cornish towne, and to come behind none in buildings, Lanceston onely excepted, where there is more vse, and profit of faire lodgings, through the Countie Assizes. I wish that they would likewise deserue praise, for getting, and imploying their riches, in some industrious trade, to the good of their Countrie, as the Harbours oportunitie inuiteth them.
Descending from Truro to the Hauens mouth, by water, you are ouer-looked, by sundrie Gentlemens commodious seates, as Fentengollan, in English, the Harts well, lately appertayning to master Carmynow, by interpretation often louing, and now to master Holcomb, who married the daughter of master Peter Courtney.
Master Sayers house, Ardeuora, inhabited by master Thomas Peyton, a Gentleman for his age and vertues, deseruing a regardfull estimation, [blank] Master Bescawnes, [blank] Master Sayers: but amongst all, vpon that side of the riuer, Taluerne, for pleasant prospect, large scope, and other hous-keeping commodities, challengeth the preeminence: it was giuen to a yonger brother of Lanhearne, for some six or seuen descents past, and hath bred Gent. of good worth and calling: amongst whom, I may not forget the late kind, & valiant Sir Iohn Arundell, who matched with Godolphin, nor Iohn his vertuous, and hopeful succeeding sonne, who married with Carew; though this remembrance renew that sorrow, which once I partly expressed in the ensuing Epitaph.
Seeke not, blind eyes, the liuing with the dead,
Tis earth you see : our Arundel is gone,
To ioyne with Christ, as member to his head,
And skornes, and pities, this our bootlesse mone.
Yet pardon vs, sweete soule, mans nature beares,
We, to thy losse, should sacrifice our teares.
Thou time hast changed to eternitie,
But timelesse was that time, in our regard,
Since nought thou leau’st vs, faue the memorie
Of thy deare worth, so soone not to be spar’d.
Soft be the graue, vnto thy resting bones:
Short be the date, that vs againe atones.
Vpon the East side of the Hauens entrance, Saint Maryes, alias, S. Mawes Castle, with his Point-blanke Ordinance, comptrolleth any shipping, that deserue a deniall of admission or passage, and is commaunded by master Viuian, a Gentleman, who through his worth deserueth, and with due care and judgement dischargeth, the Martiall and ciuill gouernments committed to his trust: hee beareth partie per fesse Ar. and Vnsase 6. in chiefe, a Lyon rampant G.
We will close vp this Hundred, after our vsuall maner, with the Gentlemen of marke, but not orderly marked. Such are Tanner, who married the daughter of Roscarrock: who beareth A. on a chiefe S. three Morions heads O. Pomeroy, a branch of Bery Pomeroy in Deuon: he beareth O. a Lyon rampant G. who matched with Tanner, and whose daughter & heire apparant, hath taken to husband the yong Penkeuil, who beareth A. two Cheurons, and in chiefe a Lyon passant G. Polwheele, whose name is deduced from his dwelling: and his dwelling may be interpreted, The miry worke, linked in wedlock with the coheire of Trencreeke, in English, The towne of the borough. His mother was Lower of Trelask. Polwheel beareth S. a Saultier engrayled Erm.
Hearle, lineally descended from sundry Knights, who wedded Treuanion: and his sonne Treffry. Hee bearth A. a Fesse G. betweene 3. Sheldrakes proper.
Sawle, who espoused Rashleigh: and his father, Kendall, &c. and beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3. Faulcons heads erased S.
I Must now, for a while, bid the South sea farewell, vntill a new oportunity call mee to end the other part of Falmouth hauen, and take the Hundred of Pider in taske, which confineth with Powder in situation, as it resembleth the same in denomination.
Pider in Cornish is 4. in English, and this is the fourth Hundred of Cornwall, if you begin your reckoning from the Wester part, at Penwith, which (signifying a head) doth seeme so to require it.
In entring this Hundred, Padstowe first presenteth it selfe, a towne and hauen of suteable quality, for both (though bad) are the best, that the North Cornish coast possesseth. The Borough gaue name to the harbour, and borroweth it of Petrock and Stowe, contracting the same into Padstowe. It hath lately purchased a corporation and reapeth greatest thrift, by traffiking  with Ireland, for which it commodiously lieth.
The harbour is barred with banks of sand, made (through vniting their weak forces) sufficiently strong, to resist the Oceans threatening billows, which (diuorced from their parent) find their rage subdued by the others lowly submission.
M. Nicholas Prideaux, from his new and stately house, thereby taketh a ful and large prospect of the towne, hauen, & countrey adioyning, to all which, his wisdome is a stay, his authority a direction. He maried one of Viels coheires; and though endowed with fayre reuenues in Deuon, maketh Cornwall beholden to his residence. He beareth A. a Cheuron S. in chief a fyle with three Lambreaux G.
The salt water leauing Padstowe, floweth up into the countrey, that it may embrace the riuer Camel, and hauing performed this naturall courtesie, ebbeth away againe, to yield him the freer passage, by which meanes they both vndergoe Wade bridge, the longest, strongest, and fayrest that the Shire can muster. It tooke his name of a foorde adioyning, which affoordeth a way, not so safe, as compendious, when the tyde is out.
Wade bridge delivereth you into a waste ground, where 9. long and great stones, called The sisters, stand in a ranke together, and seeme to haue bene so pitched, for continuing the memory of somewhat, whose notice is yet enuied vs by time.
Neere to Belowdy, commonly, & not vnproperly, termed Beelowzy, the top of a hill is enuironed with deep treble trenches, which leaue a large playne space in the midst: they call it Castellan Danis, of which my former booke maketh mention; and it seemeth (in times past) to haue bin a matter of moment, the rather, for that a great cawsey (now couered with grasse) doth lead vnto it.
Saint Colombs is a bigge parish, and a meane market towne, subiect to the Lordship and patronage of the Lanhearn Arundels, who for many descents, lye there interred, as the inscriptions on their graue stones doe testify.
Theire name is deriued from Hirundelle, in French, a Swallow, & out of France, at the conquest they came, & sixe Swallowes they giue in Armes. The Countrey people entitle them, The great Arundels: and greatest stroke, for loue, liuing, and respect, in the Countrey heretofore they bare.
Their sayd house of Lanhearne, standeth in the next parish, called Mawgan: Ladu is Cornish for a bank, and on a banke the same is seated, what hearne may mean, ignorance bids mee keepe silence. It is appurtenanced with a large scope of land, which (while the owners there liued) was employed to franke hospitality; yet the same wanted wood, in lieu whereof, they burned heath, and generally, it is more regardable for profit, then commendale for pleasure. The Gent. now liuing, maried Anne the daughter of Henry Gerningham: his father (a man of a goodly presence and kinde magnanimity) maried the daughter of the Earle of Darby, and widdow to the L. Stourton. He beareth S. 6. Swallowes in pile A.
Little Colan hath lesse worth the obseruation, vnlesse you will deride, or pity, their simplicity, who sought at our Lady Nants well there, to foreknowe what fortune should betide them, which was in this maner:
Vpon Palm Sunday, these idle-headed seekers resorted thither, with a palme crosse in one hand, & an offring  in the other: the offring fell to the Priests share, the Crosse they threwe into the well; which if it swamme, the party should outliue that yeere; if it sunk, a short ensuing death was boded: and perhaps, not altogether vntruely, while a foolish conceyt of this halfening might the sooner helpe it onwards. A contrary practise to the goddess Iunoes lake In Laconia: for there, if the wheaten cakes, cast in vpon her festiuall day, were by the water receiued, it betokened good luck; if reiected, euill. The like is written by Pausanias, of Inus in Greece, and by others touching the offrings throwne into the fornace of mount Etna in Sicill.
From hence, by the double duety of consanguinitie and affinity, I am called to stop at Cosowarth, which inhabitance altered the Inhabitants from their former French name Escudifer, in English, Iron shield, to his owne, as they prooue by olde euidence, not needing in the Norman Kings new birth, to be distinguished with the Raigners number.
Cosowarth, in Cornish, importeth The high groue: and well stored with trees it hath bene, neither is yet altogether destitute.
Iohn the heire of that house, hauing by the daughter of Williams, issue only one daughter Katherine, suffered part of his lands to descend vnto the children of her first husband, Alen Hill: another part hee intayled in her second marriage, with Arundel of Trerice, to their issue. The house of Cosowarth, and the auncient inheritance there adioyning, he gaue to the heires male of his stock, by which conueyance, his vncle Iohn succeeded, who married the daughter of Sir Wil. Lock, King H. the 8. marchant, and by him knighted, for that with equall courage, and hazard, hee tooke downe the Popes Bull, set vp at Antwerp against his Soueraigne. He had issue Thomas, Edward, Michael, Iohn, and Robert. Thomas maried the daughter of Samtabyn, on whom he begat Iohn and Dorothy: Iohn the elder and Robert, neuer tasted the sweet and sowre of bridale fruit.
Michael tooke to wife Sidenhams daughter of Dulverton in
Somerset shire, and is father onely of issue female.
Hee addicteth himself to an Ecclesiasticall life, and therein ioyning Poetry with Diuinity, endeuoureth to imitate the holy Prophet Dauid, whose Psalmes, of his translation into English meeter, receiue the general applause, beyond a great many other wel-deseruing vndertakers of the same taske.
Iohn the youngest, succeeding in this inheritance, vpon iust cause, good conscience, and gratefull kindnesse, renewed the intayle which his father Thomas had cut off, and in a single estate, and the vniuersall loue of all that conuersed with him, made a short period of his long hoped life: whose decease I bewayled in these rimes.
HE that at sea and land amidst his foes,
By courage guided, sought, and scapt his death,
Loe, here, amongst his friends, whom liking chose,
And nature lent, hath vp resign’d his breath.
Vnripened fruit in grouth, precious in hope,
Rare in effect, had fortune giuen scope.
Our eyes with teares performe thine obsequy,
And hearts with sighes, since hands could yeeld none aid, 
Our tongues with praise preserue thy memory,
And thoughts with griefs, since we behind are staid.
Coswarth farewell, death which vs parts atwaine,
E’re long, in life, shall vs conioyne againe.
His sister maried Kendall.
Edward his vncle, and heire, by vertue of these entayles, married the daughter of Arundel of Trerice, and from a ciuill Courtiers life in his younger yeers, reposeth his elder age, on the good husbandry of the country, hauing raised posterity sufficient, for transplanting the name into many other quarters. He beareth A. on a Cheuron betweene three wings B. fiue Bezants.
Against you haue passed towards the West somewhat more then a mile, Trerice, anciently, Treres, offereth you the viewe of his costly and commodious buildings. What Tre is, you know already, res signifieth a rushing of fleeting away, and vpon the declyning of a hill the house is seated.
In Edward the 3. raigne, Ralphe Arundel matched with the heire of this land and name: since which time, his issue hath there continued, and encreased their liuelyhood, by sundry like Inheritours, as S. Iohn, Iew, Durant, Thurlebear, &c.
Precisely to rip vp the whole pedigree, were more tedious, then behoouefull: and therefore I will onely (as by the way) touch some fewe poynts, which may serue (in part) to shew what place & regard they haue borne in the Common wealth.
There was an indenture made, betweene Hugh Courtney, Earle of Deuon, Leiutenant to the King, for a sea voyage, in defence of the Realme: and Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, for accompanying him therein.
He was Sherife of Cornwall. [8. H. 5.]
Iohn Earle of Huntingdon, vnder his seale of Armes, [5. H. 6.] made Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, Seneshall of his houshold, as well in peace, as in warre, gaue him ten pound fee, and allowed him entertaynment in his house, for one Gentleman, three Yeoman, one boy, and sixe horses.
The same Earle, stiling himselfe Lieutenant generall [8. H. 6.] to Iohn Duke of Bedford, Constable and Admirall of England, wrote to the said Sir Iohn Arundel, then Vice-admirall of Cornwall, for the release of a ship, which hee had arrested by vertue of his office.
The Queene, by her letter, aduertised Iohn Arundel of [3. H. 7.] Trerice Esquire, that she was brought in child-bed of [12.Oct.] a Prince.
The King wrote to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, that [11. H. 8] he should giue his attendance at Canterbury, about the entertaynment of the Emperour, whose landing was then and there expected.
Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire, tooke prisoner, [14. H. 8.] Duncane Campbell, a Scot, in a fight at sea, as our Chronicle mentioneth, concerning which, I thought it not amisse, to insert a letter sent him from Tho. Duke of Norfolke (to whom he then belonged) that you may see the stile of those dayes.
By the Duke of Norf.
Right welbeloued, in our hearty wife we commend vs vnto you, letting you wit, that by your seruant, this bearer, wee haue receyued your letters, dated at Truru the 5. day of this moneth of April, by which we perceyue the goodly, valiant, and ieopardous enterprise, it hath pleased God of late to send you, by the taking of Duncane Camel & other Scots on the sea; of which enterprise we haue made relation vnto the Kings Highnesse, who is not a little ioyous and glad, to heare of the same, and hath required vs instantly in his name, to giue you thanks for your said valiant courage, and bolde enterprise in the premises: and by these our letters, for the same your so doing, we doe not onely thanke you in our most effectuall wise, but also promise you, that during our life, wee will bee glad to aduaunce you to any preferment we can. And ouer this, you shall vnderstand, our said Soueraigne Lords pleasure is, that you shall come and repaire to his Highnes, with diligence in your owne person, bringing with you the said Captiue, and the Master of the Scottish ship; at which time, you shall not onely be sure of his especiall thanks by mouth, & to know his further pleasure therein, but also of vs to further any your reasonable pursuits vnto his Highnes, or any other, during our life, to the best of our power, accordingly. Written at Lambeth, the 11. day of Aprill aforesaid.
Superscribed: To our right welbeloued seruant, Iohn Arundell of Trerice.
The King wrote to Sir Iohn Ar. of Trerice, touching [35. H. 8.] his discharge from the Admiralty of the fleete, lately committed vnto him, & that he should deliuer the ship which he sayled in, to Sir Nic. Poynts.
The same yere the King wrote to him againe, that he should attend him in his warres against the French king, with his seruants, tenants, and others, within his roomes and offices, especially horsemen.
Other letters from the King there are, whose date is not expressed, neither can I by any meanes hunt it out.
One, to his seruant Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire, willing him, not to repaire with his men, and to wayte in the rereward of his army, as hee had commaunded him, but to keepe them in a readinesse for some other seruice.
Another, to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, praying and desiring him to the Court, the Quindene of Saint Hillarie next, wheresoeuer the King shall then bee within the Realme.
There are also letters, directed to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, from the Kings Counsell, by some of which it it appeareth, that hee was Viceadmirall of the Kings [Ed. 6.] shippes, in the West seas, and by others, that hee had the goods and lands of certaine Rebels, giuen him, for his good seruice against them.
The Queene wrote to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, [1. Mar] praying and requiring him, that hee, with his friends and neighbours, should see the Prince of Spaine most honourably entertained, if he fortuned to land in Cornwall.
[2. Mar.] Shee wrote to him (being then Sherife of Cornwall) touching the election of the Knights of the shire, and the Burgesses for the Parliament.
[2. & 3.] Shee likewise wrote to him, that (notwithstanding [P. & M.] the instructions to the Iustices) hee should muster, and furnish his seruants, tenants, and others, vnder his rule and offices, with his friends, for the defence, and quieting of the Countrie, withstanding of enemies, and any other imployment, as also to certifie, what force of horse and foote he could arme.
These few notes I haue culled out of many others. Sir Iohn Arundell, last mentioned, by his first wife, the coheire of Beuill, had issue Roger, who died in his fathers life time; and Katherine, married to Prideaux: Roger by his wife Trendenham left behind him a sonne, called Iohn. Sir Iohns second wife, was daughter to Erisy, and widdow to Gourlyn, who bare him Iohn, his succeeder in Trerice, and much other faire reuenewes, whose due commendation, because another might better deliuer then my selfe, who touch him as neerely, as Tacitus did Agricola) I will therefore bound the same within his desert, and onely say this, which all, who knew him, shall testifie with me: that, of his enemies, he would take no wrong, nor on them any reuenge; and being once reconciled, embraced them, without scruple or remnant of gall. Ouer his kinred, hee held a warie and charie care, which bountifully was expressed, when occasion so required, reputing himselfe, not onely principall of the family, but a generall father to them all. Priuate respects euer, with him, gaue place to the common good: as for franke, well ordered, and continuall hospitalitie, he outwent all shew of competence: spare, but discreet of speech, better conceiuing, then deliuering: equally stout, and kind, not vpon lightnesse of humour, but soundnesse of iudgement, inclined to commiseration, readie to relieue. Briefely, so accomplished in vertue, that those, who for many yeeres together wayted in neerest place about him, and, by his example, learned to hate vntruth, haue often deeply protested, how no curious obseruation of theirs, could euer descrie in him, any one notorious vice. By his first foreremembred wife, he had 4. daughters married, to Carew, Summaster, Cosowarth, & Denham: by his later, the daughter of Sir Robert Denis, 2. sonnes, and 2. daughters: the elder, euen from his young yeeres, began where his father left, and with so temperate a course, treadeth iust in his footesteps, that hee inheriteth, as well his loue, as his liuing. The younger brother followeth the Netherland wars, with so wel-liked a cariage, that hee outgoeth his age, and time of seruice, in preferment. Their mother equalleth her husbands former children, and generally all his kinred, in kind vsage, with her owne, and is by them all, againe, so acknowledged and respected.
Of Saint Peran, wee haue spoken before, which too well brooketh his surname, in Sabulo: for the light sand, carried vp by the North wind, from the sea shore, daily continueth his couering, and marring the land adioynant, so as the distresse of this deluge, draue the Inhabitants to remooue their Church: howbeit, when it meeteth with any crossing brooke, the same (by a secret antipathy) restraineth, and barreth his farder incroching that way.
In Withiell Parish of this Hundred, one Gidly, not many yeeres sithence, digged downe a little hillocke, or  Borough, called Borsneeuas, in English, Cheapfull, therewith to thicken his other ground. In the bottome of which he found three white stones, triangle-wise (as pillers) supporting another flat one, some two foote and a halfe square, and in the midst betweene them, and vnder it, an earthen Pot, halfe full of a blacke slymie, and ill-fauouring substance, which (doubtlesse) was once the ashes of some notable person, there committed to that maner of buriall.
Saint Agnes, one of the high hils, which I specially recited in my former booke, by his entrailes (like Prometheus) feedeth the Tynners pecking, or picking bils, with a long liued profit, albeit, their scarcle Eagle eyes sometimes mistake the shadow for the substance, and so offer vp degenerate teares, as a late sacrifice to repentance.
The neighbours haue obserued, that of two Lakes, neere adioyning to this hill, and so each to other, the one will foster fish, and the other none at all.
Neyther may I omit newe Kaye, a place in the North coast of this Hundred, so called, because in former times, the neighbours attempted, to supplie the defect of nature, by Art, in making there a Kay, for the Rode of shipping, which conceyt they still retayne, though want of means in themselues, or the place, haue left the effect in Nubibus: and onely lent them the benefit of Lestercockes and fisher-boates.
I cannot finish this Hundred, with the relation of many more Gentlemen, eyther through want of them, or in my selfe. Trenance added to his owne liuelyhood, the possessions of Littleton, to whome, as sisters sonne, and generall heire, hee succeeded and married Kendall, and his sonne Roscarrocke: hee beareth A. a Fesse, betweene three Swords S.
There dwelleth also Master Tredenick, who matched with the daughter of Viuian, and his father, of Marow, who beareth O. on a bend S. three Buckes heads cabased A. As also Langherne B. a Cheuron betweene 3. Escalops O. Burlace, A. on a bend S. two hands tearing in sunder a horse-shooe of the field; and others.
KEry in Cornish, signifieth bearing: and yet you must beare with me, if I forbeare to deriue Kerier herefrom, vntill I see some reason for my warrant: wherefore leauing that, I will weaue on my former webbe of Falmouth hauen; and first, a word or two touching the same in generall, ere I descend to the yet vndescribed West side in particular.
The riuer Fala, falling here, into the seas wide-gaping mouth, hath endowed it with that name,
In the very entrance of the harbour lyeth a rocke, rather disgracing, then endamaging the same: for with the ebbe it is discouered, and at the flood, marked by a pole purposely fixed thereupon. For the rest, such as compare Plymmouth and Falmouth together, obserue, that Plymmouth creekes are mostly coasted with plaine shoares; Falmouth, with steepe: which maketh that, the more delightfull for prospect, this, the more safe for riding. Againe, they say that Falmouth lyeth farther out in the trade way, and so offreth a sooner oportunity to wind-driuen shipping, then Plymmouth, but that Plymmouth hath a better outlet, from his Catwater, for saylers  bound to the Westwards, and from Hamoase for those that would fare to the East, then Falmouth. Likewise as Plymmouth vaunteth richer and fairer townes, and greater plentie of fish then Falmouth: so Falmouth braggeth, that a hundred sayle may Anker within his circuite, and no one of them see the others top, which Plymmouth cannot equall. Howsoeuer they agree for competence among themselues, the worst of them, by most mens iudgements, hath the precedence (Milford onely excepted) of all other hauens in England. And thus much of the whole. Now to the parts.
On the West side, at the verie comming in, there riseth a hill, called Pendenis, where king Henrie the eighth, when hee tooke order for fortifying the Sea coasts, caused a Castle to bee builded, with allowance of a pettie Garrison, and some small store of Ordinance. Another, somewhat like thereto in plot, but different in sight, was s. Mawes then erected in the other side, at Saint Mawes, of which Castle, I haue spoken heretofore.
Saint Mawes lieth lower, and better to annoy shipping: but Pendenis standeth higher, and stronger to defend it selfe. It should seeme, the fortifier made his aduantage of the commoditie, affoorded by the ground, and shot rather at a safe preferuing the Harbour, from sodaine attempts of little Fleetes, and the mastering of Pirates, then to withstand any great Nauie, or maigne inuasion.
But her Maiestie casting an equall eye to both, or rather a sharper sight to this later, as quickned through the enemies diuers pretences against these places (whereof Falmouth, by myracle, not prouidence, escaped one) raysed a new fort with a Garrison, vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth, and at her great charges, with some little helpe of the Countrie, added an increase of fortification and souldiers to Pendenis. Howbeit, his greatest strength consisteth in Sir Nicholas Parker, the Gouernour, who demeaning himselfe, no lesse kindly, and frankly towards his neighbours, for the present, then hee did resolutely, and valiantly, against the enemie when he followed the warres; therethrough commaundeth, not onely their bodies, by his authoritie, but also their hearts, by his loue, to liue and die in his assistance, for their common preseruation, and her Highnesse seruice: hee beareth B. Frettie, and A. a Fesse O.
After the declining hill hath deliuered you downe from this Castle, Arwenacke entertaineth you, with a pleasing view: for the same standeth so farre within the Hauens mouth, that it is protected from the sea stormes, and yet so neere thereunto, as it yeeldeth a ready passage out. Besides the Cliffe, on which the house abbutteth, is steepe enough to shoulder off the waues, and the ground about it, plaine and large enough for vse and recreation.
It is owed by Master Iohn Killigrew, who married the daughter of Monck, and heire to her mother [blank] and was sonne to Sir Iohn Killigrew, who matched with Woluerstone: the stocke is ancient, and diuers of the branches (as I haue elsewhere remembred) growne to great aduancement, in calling and liuely-hood, by their greater desert: their Armes are A. an Eagle with two heads displayed within a bordure Bezanty S.
Somewhat aboue Arwenacke, Trefuses point diuideth the harbour, and yeeldeth a seuerall Ankering  place on eche side thereof; the one called Carrack rode, the other, Kings rode.
This Promontory is possessed and inhabited by a Gentleman of that name, who suitably to his name, giueth three Fusils for his coat, in this sort: A. a Cheuron betweene three Fusils S. He maried the coheire of Gaurigan, and M. Wil. Godolphin, late yonger brother to Sir FraunciS, her other sister.
Vpon the left hand from hence, at the top of a creek, Perin towne hath taken vp his seat, rather passable, then noteable, for wealth, buildings, and Inhabitants; in all which, though neere the hauens mouth, it giueth Truro the preeminence: the like whereof I obserue, touching diuers other townes, of the same situation, in Deuon, as Salcomb, and Kings bridge, Dartmouth, and Totnes, Topsham, and Excester: amongst which, those that stand highest vp in the Countrey, affoord therethrough, a fitter oportunity of accesse, from all quarters, and so a speedyer and larger vent of their commodities.
In Perin was Glasney Colledge, founded [1256.] by Walter Brounscomb, & benefited by Iohn Graundson, Bishops of Excester [1327.], which See possesseth faire reuenues thereabouts.
Vpon another creeke on the same side, Carclew hath (after the Cornish maner) welneere metamorphosed the name of Master Bonithon, his owner, into his owne. He maried the daughter of Viuian, his father of Killigrew, his graundfather of Erisy, and beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3, Floures de luce. S.
With any memorable act or accident, concerning this hauen, I cannot acquaint you, before my parting therefrom, saue onely, that Philip, Arch-duke of Austriche, during his voyage from Netherland towards Spayne (his wiues Kingdome) was weather-driuen into Weymouth, and, with a kinde constraint, receyued a more royall, then welcome entertainment, at the hands of King Henrie the 7. from which hee could not free himself, but by redeeming his libertie, with De la Pooles captiuity. This accomplished, he made choyce to take ship again at Falmouth, that so by the shortest cut, hee might leaue least power in fortune, to thwart him any second incumbrance.
Hailford, so called, of the fordible riuer Haill, if elsewhere placed, would carry the reputation of a good harbour; but as it now standeth, Falmouths ouer-neere neighbourhood lesseneth his vse, and darkeneth his reputation, as quitting it onely to the worst sort of Seafarers, I meane, Pirats, whose guilty brests, with an eye in their backs, looke warily how they may goe out, ere they will aduenture to enter; and this at vnfortifyed Hailford, cannot be controlled: in which regard, it not vnproperly brooketh his more common terme of Helford, and the nick-name of Stealfoord.
His shores affoord commodious seates, to the dwellings of Reskimer, who maried S. Abin, and beareth B. 3. barres A. in cheife a Wolfe passant of the first: and Tregose, who matched with Kendal: his sonne with Erisy, and beareth B. two barres Gemewes in cheife a Lyon passant O. armed and langued G.
And if your eares be not already cloyed with relation of wonders, I will let you vnderstand, how I was once carried to see one hereabouts. It is (forsooth) a  great rock, lying vpon the ground, his top deepned to a hollownesse, not much vnlike in fashion, but far exceeding in proportion the long halfe of an egge. This (they say) holdeth water, which ebbeth and floweth as the sea, and, indeed, when I came thither, the tyde was halfe out, and the pit halfe empty. By it there stands a Chappell, & to it there belonged a couer, so as the same seemed, in former times, to cary some regard. But I haue heard credible persons so discredit this woonder, that I dare not offer it you, as probable, much lesse thrust it vpon you, as approoued. The name thereof is, Hanterdauis, which (turning d to t) signifieth halfe a tongue.
More certaine, though lesse wonderfull, and yet, for the strangenesse, wel worth the viewing, is Mainamber: Mayne, is a rocke, amber, as some say, signifieth Ambrose. And a great rocke the same is, aduaunced vpon some others of a meaner size, with so equall a counterpeyze, that the push of a finger, will sensibly moue it too and fro: but farther to remooue it, the vnited forces of many shoulders are ouer-weake. Wherefore the Cornish wonder-gatherer, thus descrybeth the same,
BE thou thy mother natures worke,
Or proofe of Giants might:
Worthlesse and ragged though thou shew,
Yet art thou worth the sight.
This hugy rock, one fingers force
Apparently will moue;
But to remooue it, many strengths
Shall all like feeble prooue.
Helston, in Cornish, Hellaz, in English, the greene hall, is a well seated and peopled towne, priuiledged, secundum vsum, with the rest, and one of the 4. Coynage places.
Vnder it runneth the riuer Lo, whose passage into the sea, is thwarted by a sandy banke, which forceth the same to quurt back a great way, and so to make a poole of some miles in compasse. It breedeth a peculiar kind of bastard Trought, in bignesse and goodnes exceeding such as liue in the fresh water, but comming short of those that frequent the salt.
The foreremembred bank serueth as a bridge, to deliuer wayfarers, with a compendious passage, to the other side; howbeit, sometimes with more haste then good speed: for now and then, it is so pressed on the inside, with the increasing riuers waight, and a portion of the vtter sand, so washed downe by the waues; that at a sudden, out breaketh the vpper part of the poole, and away goeth a great deale of the sand, water, and fish: which instant, if it take any passenger tardy, shrewdly endangereth him, to flit for company: and some haue so miscarried.
To this poole adioyneth M. Penrose his house, whose kind entertainment hath giuen mee, and many others experience of these matters. He maried the daughter of Rashleigh: he beareth A. 3. Bendes S. charged with 9. restes.of the field.
Those 2. riuers of Haill and Lo, rising not farre asunder, doe enclose betweene them, as they runne into the sea, a neck of land, particularized with the name of Meneag: and in regard of his fruitfulnesse, not vnworthy of a seuerance.
Within this circuit, lie Trelawarren M. Viuians house, and Erisy, seated in 2. parishes, and descended, by a long ranke of ancestours, to the Gent, of that name, now in ward. His father married Carew: his graundsire, one of Militons coheires, who ouerliuing her husband, ended the course of her long and well commended widdowhood, in becomming Lady to Sir Nicholas Parker. The Enzies beare S. a Cheuron, betweene 3. Griffons Sergreant O.
Clowance (deriued from Cloow, which signifieth, to heare) is the possession and dwelling of M. Saintabin, whose very name (besides the conquest roll) deduceth his first auncestours out of Fraunce. His graundfather married Greinuile: his father, one of Whittingtons coheires: which later couple, in a long and peaceable date of yeeres, exercised a kinde, liberall, and neuer discontinued hospitality. Himselfe tooke to wife the daughter of Mallet, and with ripe knowledge and sound iudgement, dischargeth the place which he beareth in his Countrey. Hee beareth O. on a crosse G. fiue Bezaunts.
Pengueraz, in Cornish importeth a head to help; from which, some deduce the Etymon of Pengersick, a fayre house, in an vnfruitfull soyle, sometimes the inhabitance of M. Militon, Captaine of the Mount, and husband to Godolphin, whose sonne being lost in his trauaile beyond the seas, enriched 6. distafs with his inheritance. They were bestowed in mariage (but by me not orderly marshalled) as followeth: 1. to Erisy, and Sir Nicholas Parker. 2. to Lanine, 3. to Trefuses, and Tregodeck, 4. to Trenwith, Arundel, and Hearle, 5. to Bonithon. 6. to Abbot.
Not farre from thence, riseth Godolghan-ball, or hill, at whose foote standeth a house of the same name, and so intitling his owner, though lately declined (with a milder accent) to Godolphin: in Cornish, it signifieth, a white Eagle: and such armes they carry in this sort: G. an Eagle displayed with two heads, betweene three Floures de luce A.
This hill hath, for diuers descents, supplyed those Gent. bountifull mindes, with large meanes accruing from their Tynne-works, and is now possessed by Sir Frauncis Godolphin Knight, whose zeale in religion, vprightnesse in iustice, prouidence in gouernment, and plentifull housekeeping, haue wonne him a very great and reuerent reputation in his Countrey: and these vertues, together with his seruices to her Maiestie, are so sufficiently knowne to those of highest place, as my testimony can adde little light thereunto: but by his labours and inuentions in Tynne matters, not onely the whole Countrey hath felt a generall benefit, so as the seuerall owners haue thereby gotten very great profit out of such refuse works, as they before had giuen ouer for vnprofitable; but her Maiesty hath also receyued encrease of her customes by the same, at least to the value of 10. thousand pound. Moreouer, in those works which are of his owne particular inheritance, hee continually keepeth at work, three hundred persons or thereabouts, & the yerely benefit, that out of those his works accrueth to her Maiestie, amounteth, communibus annis, to one thousand pound at the least, and sometimes to much more. A matter very remorceable, and perchaunce not to be matched againe by any of his sort and condition in the whole Realme. He succeeded to the inheritance  of his vnkle Sir William Godolphin, who, as hath bene said before, demeaned himselfe verie valiantly in a charge which hee bare at Boloigne, towards the latter end of the reigne of King Henry the 8. & is like to leaue the same to another Sir William his sonne, who giueth hope, not onely of the sustaining, but increasing of the reputation of his family. Hee matched with Killigrew, his father with Bonython, his Graund-father with Glynne,
Diuers other Gentlemen there dwell in this Hundred, as Lanyne, the husband of Kekewitch, his father married Militon, and beareth S. a Castle, A. standing in waues B. ouer the same a Faulcon houerin with bels O. Pernwarne, that matched with the coheire of Tencreek, who beareth S. a Cheuron betweene three Flowers de luce A. Lagherne, who tooke to wife the daughter of Nants, and beareth B. a Cheuron betweene three Escalops, O. Nansperyan coupled in matrimonie, with [blank] and his two daughters and heires apparent, with Prideaux, and Mathew; who beareth A. three Losenges S.
MY last labour, for closing vp this wearisome Suruey, is bounded, as Cornwall it selfe, and so the West part of England, with Penwith Hundred. The name, in English signifieth, the head of Ashen trees, belike, for some such eminent marke, while the Countrie was better stored of Timber. The Danes sayling about Penwith Steort (saith Houeden [997.]) made foule hauocke, in Devon and-Cornwall.
Vpon the North sea, lieth Nants, which importeth a valley, and houseth a Gent, who therethrough, hath worne out his former name, of Trengoue, in English,the Smithes towne, and assumed this: he married Sir Iohn Arundels daughter of Trerice: and beareth A. a crosse haumed S. During summer season, the Seales haunt a Caue, in the Cliffe thereby, and you shall see great store them, apparently shew themselues, and approch verie neere the shore, at the sound of any lowde musicke, or other such noyse.
Beyond Nants, M. Basset possesseth Tehiddy, who married Godolphin, his father Coffyn : he beareth O. three Piles in point G. a Canton Er. with a difference.
And so, leauing these priuate Inhabitances, & keeping still the North coast, we arriue at the towne, and port of S. Ies: both of meane plight, yet, with their best meanes, (and often, to good and necessarie purpose) succouring distressed shipping. Order hath bene taken, and attempts made, for bettering the Road, with a Peere, but eyther want, or slacknesse, or impossibilitie, hitherto withhold the effect: the whiles, plentie of fish is here taken, and sold verie cheape.
As you row to the Westwards from hence, the sea floweth into a large Caue, farder vp, then any man durst yet aduenture to discouer, and the Cliffes thereabouts muster long strakes of a glittering hiew, which import a shew of Copper: and Copper mynes are found, and wrought in the grounds adioyning.
M. Camden obserueth, that neere hereunto, stood the watch-towre, mencioned by Orosius, and oppositely placed to such another in Galitia.
Stepping ouer to the South-sea, (for the distaunce  is in comparison, but a step) S. Michaels mount looketh so aloft, as it brooketh no concurrent, for the highest place. Ptolomey termeth it Ocrinum, the Cornish men, Cara Cowz in Clowze, that is, The hoare rocke in the wood. The same is sundred from the mayne land, by a sandy playne, of a slight shoot in breadth, passable, at the ebbe, on foote; with boat, on the flood. Your arriuall on the farther side, is entertayned by an open greene, of some largenesse, which finishing where the hill beginneth, leaues you to the conduction of a winding and craggy path; and that at the top, deliuereth you into a little plaine, occupied, for the greatest part, by a fort of the olde making. It compriseth lodgings for the Captayne and his garrison, and a Chappell for deuotion. This latter, builded by Will. Earle of Morton, to whom William the Conquerour his vncle, gaue much lands in those quarters, and greatly haunted, while folke endured their merits, by farre trauailing. They haue a tye pit, not so much satisfying vse, as relieuing necessitie. A little without the Castle, there is a bad seat in a craggy place, called S. Michaels Chaire, some what daungerous, for accesse, and therefore holy for the aduenture.
Vntill Richard the firsts raigne, the mount seemeth to haue serued onely for religion, and (during his imprisonment) to haue bene first fortified by Henry de la Pomeray, who surprized it, and expulsed the Monks: howbeit soone after, when hee became ascertained of his Soueraignes enlargement, the very feare of ensuing harme wrought in him a present effect of the vttermost that any harme could bring, namely, his death: whereon, the olde cell and new fort, was surrendred to the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Kings behalfe. Thus Houeden reporteth. But the descendents from this Pomeray, alias, Pomeroy, make a somewhat different relation of this accident: for they affirme, that a Sergeant at armes of the Kings, came to their auncestour, at his Castle of Bery Pomeroy, in Deuon, receyued kind entertaynment for certaine dayes together, and at his departure, was gratified with a liberall reward: in counter-change whereof, he then, and no sooner, reuealing his long concealed errand, flatly arresteth his hoaste, to make his immediate appearance before the King, for answering a capitall crime. Which vnexpected and il-carryed message, the Gent, tooke in such despite, as with his dagger hee stabbed the messenger to the heart: and then well knowing in so suparlatiue an offence, all hope of pardon foreclosed, he abandones his home, gets to a sister of his abiding in this mount, bequetheth a large portion of his land to the religious people there, for redeeming his soule: and lastly, causeth himselfe to be let bloud vnto death, for leauing the remainder to his heire: from which time forward, this place continued rather a schoole of Mars, then the Temple of peace. For shortly after the discomfiture of H. the 6. party, by Ed. the 4. [11. E. 4.] at Barnet field, Iohn Earle of Oxford, who had made one, and one of the principall on the weaker side, arriued heere by shipping, disguised himselfe, with some of his followers, in Pilgrims habits, therethrough got entrance, mastred the garrison, and seyzed the place. Which, thus politikely wonne, hee as valiantly kept, and kept a long time defended against the Kings power, vntill reasonable conditions swayed him to a surrender.
A like surprize, but of later date, I read in Popeliniere [2. Vol. Lib. 31.], touching the like named and seated mount, in Normandy.
During the last Cornish commotion, diuers Gent. with their wiues and families, fled to the protection of this place, where the Rebels besieged them, first wynning the plaine at the hils foote, by assault, when the water was out, and then; the euen ground on the top, by carrying vp great trusses of hay before them, to blench the defendants sight, and dead their shot. After which, they could make but slender resistance: for no sooner should any one within, peepe out his head, ouer those inflanked wals, but he became an open marke to a whole showre of arrowes. This disaduantage, together with the womens dismay, & decrease of victuals, forced a surrender to those Rakehels mercy, who, nothing guilty of that effeminate vertue, spoyled their goods, imprisoned their bodies, and were rather by Gods gracious prouidence, then any want of will, purpose, or attempt, restrayned from murdering the principall persons.
Heere also [13. H. 7.], was the Lady Katherine Gordon (an vnfit yoke-fellow for that counterfeit Prince, Perkin Warbeck) taken by the L. Daubney, and conueyed to the King. Of this, as the last wonder.
Who knowes not Mighels mount and chaire,
The Pilgrims holy vaunt:
Both land, and Iland, twise a day,
Both fort, and port of haunt.
Vnder the mount extendeth a bay, for lesser vessels to lie at: and betweene it and the Westerne shoare, there is an indifferent good road for shipping, sauing vpon some winds, called the Mounts bay: where, by Froissarts report, Sir Robert Knolles landed, what time his returne out of Fraunce, was by K. Ed. the 3. commaunded, and for his valiant exployts there, atchieued, very graciously welcomed.
Ouer-against the Mount, fronteth a towne, of petty fortune, pertinently named Marcaiew, of Marhas diow, in English, the Thursdaies market; for then it vseth this traffike. At the beginning of K. H. the 8. raigne, it felt the Frenchmens fiery indignation, who landed there with 30. sayle. But the smoke of those poore houses, calling in the country to the rescusse, made the place ouer hote for the enemies any longer abode.
Mousehole, in Cornish, is named Porternis, and in Latin, Portus Insulae, both importing one sense, to wit, the Iland hauen, and so called, through a little Iland placed before it.
M. Holinshed telleth vs, that neere heereunto, not many yeeres sithence, certayne Tynners, as they were working, found Speare heads, Battel-axes, and swords of Copper, wrapped in lynnen clouts, and little impayred through their long lying.
Pensans, by interpretation, The Saints head, is a market towne, not so regardable for his substance, as memorable for his late accident of the Spaniards firing, which fell out in this maner:
The three & twentieth of July, 1595. soone after the Sun was risen, and had chased a fogge, which before kept the sea out of sight, 4. Gallies of the enemy presented themselues vpon the coast, ouer-against Mousehole,  and there In a faire Bay, landed about two hundred men, pikes and shot, who foorthwith sent their forlorne hope, consisting of their basest people, vnto the stragled houses of the countrie, about halfe a mile compasse or more, by whome were burned, not onely the houses they went by, but also the Parish Church of Paul, the force of the fire being such, as it vtterly ruined all the great stonie pillers thereof: others of them in that time, burned that fisher towne Mowsehole, the rest marched as a gard for defence of these firers. The Inhabitants being feared with the Spaniards landing and burning, fled from their dwellings, and verie meanely weaponed, met with Sir Francis Godolphin on a greene, on the West side of Pensance, who that forenoone comming from his house, for pacifying some controuersies in those Western parts, and from the hils espying the fires in that towne, Church, and houses, hastened thither: Who foorthwith sent to all the Captaines of those parts, for their speedie repaire with their companies, and also sent by Poast to Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Iohn Hawkins (then at Plymmouth with a fleete bound for the Indies) aduertisement of the arriuall of these foure Gallies, and of their burnings, aduising them to looke to themselues, if there were any greater fleete of the enemies at Sea, and to send West with all haste, what succours by sea or land they could spare. Then Sir Francis Godolphin aduised that weake assembly, to retire into Pensance, and to prepare it for defence, vntill the comming of the Countrie forces that hee had sent for. But they finding themselues in number something aboue a hundred, wherein were about thirtie or fortie shot, though scarce one third of them were seruiceable, insisted to march against the enemies, to repell them from farther spoyles of their houses.
But while they were marching towards them, the Spaniards returned aboord their Gallyes, and presently remooued them farther into the Bay, where they anchored againe, before and neere a lesser fisher towne, called Newlyn.
There againe with all speede they landed, and imbattelled in the slope of a hill, about foure hundred pikes and shot, sending about two rankes of soldiers, three in a ranke, vp to the top of the hill, to discouer what forces or ambushes of the Countrey might lye in view: who espying none but those that were returned with Sir Frauncis Godolphin, from their forementioned fruitlesse march, gaue notice thereof to their imbatteled company. Wherevpon they forthwith marched towards Penzance.
Vpon their moouing, Sir Frauncis Godolphin moued also, to enter Penzance before them: and assoone as that weake number were entred into the open greene being of three quarters of a mile length, the Gallyes ceased not to ply them all that way with their ordinance from their prowes, as busily as they could. Of which shot, though none were hurt, but onely a Constable vnhorsed without any harme, sauing the shew on his doublet of the bullets sliding by his back, yet many in fearefull manner, some fell flat to the ground, and others ranne away.
Sir Frauncis sent after those that were entred Penzance before him, that they should make their stand at the market place, himselfe  staying hindmost, to obserue the enemies order, and which way they would make their approach. Which done, he found at the said market place but onely two resolute shot, who stood at his commaund, and some ten or twelue others that followed him, most of them his owne seruants; the rest, surprised with feare, fled, whom, neither with his perswasions, nor threatning with his rapier drawne, hee could recall.
Finding himselfe thus abandoned, and the enemies entred the towne in three parts, he was then forced to depart, the enemies beginning their fire some houses behinde him. The towne thus fired, as also the forementioned little fisher towne Newlyn, they returned againe to their Gallies.
By this time, towards the euening, the Cornish forces encreased in nomber, and amended in heart, encamped themselues on the greene, neere to the towne of Markesew and S. Michaels Mount, for defence thereof, and there spent out the night. The next day the enemy made showe to land againe on the West side of the bay; but seeing the people, though few in number, yet resolute to resist, they desisted from their enterprize: and besides, finding themselues annoyed by the shooting of bullets and arrowes into their Gallies where they roade at anchor, they were forced to remoue them farther off.
Soone after, viz. on the 25. of July in the morning, came thither Sir Nic. Clifford, Sir H. Power, and certaine other Captaines, who were sent by the Generals from Plymmouth to the campe: As some of her Maiesties ships were also sent, who being come as farre as the Lizard head, & those Captaines to the camp, matters there goe on in prouident and orderly sort, a plot is layd for intercepting the enemy by ambush, if he thrust on shore againe, whereto necessity must soone haue pressed him, for renuing his consumed store of fresh water: but within one houre after the arriuall of these Captaines, the winde, which was vntill then strong at Southeast, with mist and rayne, to haue impeached the Gallies returne, suddenly changed into the Northwest, with very fayre and cleare weather, as if God had a purpose to preserue these his rods for a longer time. The winde no sooner came good, but away pack the Gallies with all the hast they could.
Thus haue you a summary report of the Spaniards glorious enterprise, and the Cornish mens infamous cowardise, which (were there any cause) I could qualify by many reasons, as, the suddennesse of the attempt, the narrownesse of the country, the opennesse of the towne, the aduantage of the Gallies ordinance on a people vnprepared against such accidents, through our long continued peace, & at that very time, for the most part, eyther in their Tynne-workes, or at sea, who e’re the next day made resistance, euen with a handfull, and entred a vowed resolution, to reuenge their losse at the next encounter, if the enemy had landed againe.
So might I likewise say, that all these circumstances meeting in any other quarter of the Realme, would hardly haue produced much better effects. But I will not seeke to thrust my Countrymen into any other folkes company, for shifting them out of sight.
Verily such sudden surprizes worke more indignity  then dammage, and more dammage then disgrace, and haue so beene euer construed. Moscho, a head Citie in a populous dominion, was burned by the roguing Tartars, anno domini 1572 [Liu. lib. 3.]. The Capitoll, a head fortresse, in a populous Citie, was taken by slaues and outlawes, anno vrbis, 292. and yet, who therefore exalteth the Tartars valiancy, aboue the Moschouite, or the Romanes slaues & outlawes, aboue their masters? Besides, such nap-taking assaults, spoylings, and firings, haue in our forefathers daies, betweene vs and Fraunce, beene very common; and yet, who is so witlesse, as to twite eyther of both, for the same?
But least hold can the author, and actor of this Tra-gedy take, to build any vaunt hereon: for oftentimes small troups of ours, against farre greater forces of theirs, yea (sometimes) after forewarning, and preparance, haue wonne, possessed, ransacked, synged, captiued, and carried away the townes, wealth, and Inhabitants, not onely of their Indies, but of Portugall and Spaine it selfe. Which Nombre de dios, S. Domingo, Cartagena, the lower towne of the Groigne, Penecha, the suburbs of Lisbone, and Cales wil testify, beyond all exception. But our Countrymen leauing reason & example, excuse themselues by destiny. In fatis they say (& not in fatuis) it was, that the Cornish people should vndergo this misfortune: for an ancient prophecy, in their owne language, hath long run amongst them, how there should land vpon the rock of Merlin, those that would burn Pauls Church, Pensants, and Newlyn. And indeed, so is the rocke called, where the enemy first stept on shore. The prophesy is this:
Ewra teyre a war meane Merlyn
Ara Lesky Pawle Pensanz ha Newlyn.
Not farre from the lands ende, there is a little village, called Trebegean, in English, The towne of the Giants graue: neere whereunto, and within memory (as I haue beene informed) certayne workemen searching for Tynne, discouered a long square vault, which contayned the bones of an excessiue bigge carkas, and verified this Etimology of the name.
At Saint Buriens, a parish of great circuit, and like benefit to the Incumbent, King Athelstane accomplished his vowe, in founding a Colledge of Priests, what time he had conquered the Sillane Ilands.
Chiwarton signifyeth, a house on the greene lay, and a Castle on a greene hill is giuen by the Gent. of that name, who, in a quiet single life, maketh no farther vse of his knowledge gotten in the lawes, during his younger age, or that experience, wherewith a long course of yeeres hath sithence enriched him, then may tend, sine lucro, to the aduauncement of publike iustice, or, sine strepitu, to the aduisement of his priuate acquaintance. Hee beareth A. a Castle S. standing on a hill. V.
Sundry other Gentlemen people that remote quarter as Lauelis, &c. touching whom I must plead, non sum informatus.
Diogenes, after he had tired his Scholers with a long Lecture, finding at last the voyde paper, Bee glad, my friends (quoth hee) wee are come to harbour. With the like comfort, in an vnlike resemblance, I will refresh
you who haue vouchsafed to trauaile in the rugged
and wearyfome path of mine ill-pleasing stile, that
now your iourney endeth with the land; to whose
Promontory (by Pomp. Mela, called Bolerium:
by Diodorus, Velerium: by Volaterane, Hele-
nium: by the Cornish, Pedn an laaz: and
by the English, The lands end) be-
cause we are arriued, I will
heere sit mee downe
Deo gloria: mihi gratia. 1602. April. 23.
The Table of the first Booke.
| generall, in the first | Elements.
The Suruey of | booke, reporting her | Inhabitants.
Cornwal contai- |
neth a description | Special,in the 2.book, | Topographical,
| containing matters | Historicall.
Accidents, wherein are deliuered the name & shape. Fol. 1.
The quantitie, length and breadth. ibid.
Commodities of the situation. 3.
Earth aboue, forme, qualitie. 5.
Things of life, growing, and feeling.
Earth vnder, Mynerals. 6.
Precious, Diamonds, Pearle, and Agats. 7.
Water fresh, springs, riuers, ponds. 26.
Therein the fish. 28.
The taking. 30.
Sea, things liuelesse: liuing, fish, foule.
Things of life, growing.
Corne, | dressing. ibid.
| kindes. 20.
Trees for fruit. ibid.
Fewel, timber. 21.
Things of life, feeling.
| Venery. 22.
Beasts, | meat. 23.
| vse. 24.
Stones for walling, windowes, couering, pauing, ;yme. 6.
Mettals : Tynne : 7.
Siluer and Gold. 7.
Kindes, finding. 8.
Colour, bignesse. 10.
| Aduentures. ibid.
Working, expressing the persons : | Captaine. ibid.
| Labourers. ibid.
Maner, tooles. ibid.
Loose earth, rockes. 11.
Conueyance by water, engines, Addits. ibid.
Breaking, stamping, drying, crazing, washing. ibid.
Officers supreme : L. Warden, Vice-warden. 17.
Inferior: Stewards, Gaylour. 18.
Iuries: great, petty. ibid.
Places: Wastrel, Seuerall. 13.
Bounds, doales, measure. ibid.
|in time, 13. | | places. ibid.
Coynage | | and their | times. ibid.
| Post, 14. | | Officers. ibid.
Price by free sale, Preemption. 17.
Vsury in Tynne: black, white. 15.
Sea : things liuelesse.
Briny, Salt-mils, Ilands, hauens. 26.
Sand, Orewoods, Shels and Nuts, Shipping. 27.
Sea : things liuing.
Fish, partaker of the fresh. 28.
Therein the fashion, shelly, flat, round. 30.
Within hauen. 29.
Their taking, generall and particular. 30.
Vpon the coast. 31.
Sauing and venting. 33.
Foule : eatable, not eatable. 35.
Inhabitants : estate real.
Priuate: grounds, houses. 36.
Entercourse: bridges, high wayes. 53.
Traffike : markets, fayres ibid.
Wayghts and measures. 54.
Inhabitants : estate personall.
Disposition ancient. ibid.
Disposition later, of mindes, holinesse. 58.
Sciences: Diuines. ibid.
Statemen, Martiall, Free schooles. 61.
Disposition later, of bodies: strength: ibid.
Actiuity, health. 63.
| Nobility and Gentlemen. ibid.
Degrees : | Townsmen. 65.
| Husbandmen. 66. Poore. 67.
Feasts: Saints, 69.
Haruest, Church-ale. 68.
Pastimes of the minde : songs, 72.
Pastimes of the body: shooting, 72.
| goales, 73.
Hurling to | countrey, 74.
| Gouernours, ibid.
Gouernment, as an entire State: | Royalties. 79.
Gouernment, as a part of the Realme, Spiritual: Arch-bishop,
Bishop, Arch-deacon, 82.
Gouernment, as a part of | Martial | Commaunders, 83.
the Realme, Temporal: | | Forces, ibid.
Orders, Forts. 84.
Beacons, Poasts. 85.
Ciuill Magistrates: Iudges, 89.
Vice-admirall, Coroners, Clarke of the market. 87.
Ciuill Ministers: Constables, Baylifs, 85.
Limits: Hundreds, Franchises, parishes. 86.
Proportions: places to meete, rates. ibid.
The end of the first Table.
Table of the fecond Booke.
COrnwall in generall. 96.
East Hundred. 98.
Plymmouth hauen. 98. Edgecumb. 99.
Rame head. ibid. Richaurd Adams strange
Causam bay. ibid. child-birth. 103.
S. Nicholas Iland. 99. Carew. ibid.
The bridge. ibid. Lerchdeacon. 102.
Mount-Edgecumb. ibid. Agnes Cornish, her strange
West Stonehouse. 100. escape from drowning. 107.
Hamose. ibid. Danney. 108.
Milbrook. 101. S. Germanes Priory. ibid.
Insworke. ibid. Kekewitch. 109.
Antony. 102. S. Germanes Chauncel. ibid.
Lyner riuer. ibid. Moyle. ibid.
Saltwater pond. 104. Smith. 110.
Banqueting house. 107. Langdon. ibid.
Beggers Iland. ibid. Fleets from Plymmouth ha-
Sheuiock. 108. uen. 114.
Crafthole. ibid. Carack burned. 113.
S. Germanes. ibid. Trematon besieged. ibid.
Cuddenbeake. 109. Bond. 111.
Seaton. 110. Grenuile. ibid.
Wotton. ibid. Porter. 112.
Trematon Castle. 111. Wadham. ibid.
Saltash. 112. Grisling vnderstanding speach
Ash torre. 113. by sight. 113.
Henpoynt. ibid. A charitable dogge. ibid.
Cargreene. ibid. Arundel. ibid.
Hengsten. 115. Rouse. ibid.
Carybullock. ibid. Treuice. 114.
Lawhitton. ibid. Harris. 116.
Lanceston. 116. Corington. 117.
Stratton Hundred. 117.
Straton towne. 117. Chamond. 118.
Bude. 118. Arscot. ibid.
S. Mary Wike. 119. Rempthorne. ibid.
Thomasin Bonauenture. 119.
Lesnewith Hundred. 120.
Bottreaux Caftle. ibid. Iohn Northampton. 112.
Tintogel. ibid. Earle Richard of Corn-
Dosmery poole. 122. wall. ibid.
Camelford. ibid. King Arthur. ibid.
Trigge Hundred. ibid.
Bodmyn. 123. Perkin Warbeck. 124.
Scarlets well. 126. Childrens forhalfening. ibid.
Temple. 127. Sir Anthony Kingston. ibid.
Halgauer Court. 126.
West Hundred. 127.
East and West Loo. ibid. Beuill. 130.
S. Georges Iland. 128. Iohn Size, a strange eater. ibid.
Liskerd. ibid. Murth. 131
S. Neot. 129. Wideslade. ibid.
S. Kaines well. ibid. Lower. 132.
Polpera. 131. Kendall. ibid.
Fining house. 130. Glyn. ibid.
Hall walke. 132. Mohun. ibid.
Earl of Deuons fagot. 133.
Powder Hundred. 134.
Foy hauen and towne. 134. Treffry. 134.
Trewardreth. 136. Nicholas of Foy. 135.
Lostwithiel. 137. Treasure non troue. 136.
Restormel Castle. ibid. A graue found. 137.
Roche. 138. Gallants of Foy. 135.
The tyde well spring. ibid. Rashleigh. 136.
Hainborough. ibid. Bone, deafe and dumb. 139.
S. Probus. 140. Hill. 140.
Lanhadron. ibid. Tremaine. ibid.
Grampond. ibid. Bodrugan. 141.
Dudman. 141. Trauanion. ibid.
Roseland. ibid. Lostwithiel custome. 137.
S. Mawes Castle. 142.
Pider Hundred. 143.
Padstowe. 143. Prideaux. 143.
Wade bridge. ibid. Cosowarth. 144.
Nine sisters. ibid. Trerice. 145.
Castellan Denis. ibid. Trenance. 148.
S. Colombs. 144. Tredenick. 149.
Peran in Sabulo. 148. Nants well halfening. 144.
Bors neeuas. ibid.
S. Agnes Hill. ibid.
New kay. ibid.
Kerier Hundred. 149.
Falmouth. 149. Trefuses. 150.
Pendenis. ibid. Parker. ibid.
Perin. 150. Killigrew. ibid.
Hailford hauen. 150. Carclew. 151.
Hauterdauis. 151. Penrose. 152.
Mainamber. ibid. Erisy. ibid.
Helston. 152. Saintabyn. ibid.
Lo poole. ibid. Militon. ibid.
Meneag. ibid. Godolphin. 153.
Penwith Hundred. ibid.
S. Ies. 154. Nants. 154.
The Caue. ibid. Pomeray. 154.
S. Michaels mount. ibid. Vere. 155.
Mounts bay. 156. Pensants burning. 156.
Pensants. ibid. Chiuerton. 159.
S. Buriens. ibid.
Lands end. ibid.
F I N I S
E P I S T L E
Richard Carew Esq;
The EXCELLENCIES of the
Printed in the Year M.DCC.XXIII.
An Epistle concerning the Excellencies
of the Engliih Tongue.
IT were more fitting (in respect of discretion) that men should first weigh Matters with Iudgment, and then incline their Affection where the greatest Reason swayeth. But ordinarily it falleth out to the contrarie; for by Custom we first settle our Affection, and then afterwards draw in those Arguments to approve it, which should have forgone to perswade ourselves. In this preposterous Course (seeing that antiquity from our Elders and uniuersalitie of our Neighbours do entitle with a Right) I hold myself the more freely warranted delirare, not onely cum vulgo, but also cum sapientibus, in seeking out with what Commendations I may attire our English Language, as Stephanus hath done for the French, and diuers of other Nations, for theirs.
Locutio is defined Animi sensus per vocem expressio. On which ground I build these consequences, That the first and principal point sought in euerie Language, is that we may expres the Meaning of our Minds aptly to each other. Next, that we may do it readily and without more adoe. Then fully, so as others may thoroughly conceiue us. And last of all, handsomely, that those to whom we speak may take pleasure in hearing us: So that whateuer Tongue will gain the Race of Perfection must run upon these four wheeles, SIGNIFICANCIE, EASINESS, COPIOUSNESS, and SWEETNESS; of which the two former import a Necessitie, the two latter a Delight. Now if I can proove, That our English Language for all or the most part is comparable if not preferable to any other in use at this day, I hope the assent of any impartial Reader will pass on my side. And how I indeavor to performe the same, this short labor shall manifest.
I. To begin then with the SIGNIFICANCIE of the English Tongue, it consisteth in the Letters, Words, and Phrases. And because the Greeke and Latine have ever borne away the prerogatiue from all other Tongues, they shall serue as the Touchstones whereby to make our Tryall.
For LETTERS, we haue C more then the Greekes, K and Y more then the Latines, and W more then them both, or then the French and Italians.
In those common to them and us, we have the use of the Greek B in our V, of our B they haue none; so have we of their [uppercase lambda] and [uppercase theta] in our Th, which in the wordes that and things expresseth both; but of our D they haue none. Likewise their T we turn to another use in yield, than they can; and as for E,G, and J, neither Greekes nor Latines can make use of them as we doe in these Words, each, edge, joy. True it is, that we in pronouncing the Latine use them also after this manner; but the same, in regard of the ancient and right Romane deliuerie, altogether abusively; as may appear by Scaliger, Sir Thomas Smith, Lipsius, and others.
Now, for the Significance of WORDS, as every Indiuiduum is but one, so in our native English-Saxon Language, we find many of them suitably expressed by one Sillable: Those consisting of more are borrowed from other Nations; the Examples are infinite, and therefore I will omit them as sufficiently notorious.
Again, for expressing our Passions, our Interjections are very apt and forcible; as, finding ourselves somewhat agrieued, we crie, Ah! if more deeply, Oh! if we pity, Alas! when we bemoan, Alacke! neither of them so effeminate as the Italian Deh, or the French Helas: In detestation we say Phy ! (as if therewithall we should spit) in attention, Haa; in calling, Whowpe ; in hollowing, Wahalowe: all which (in my Ear) seem to be deriued from the very Natures of those severall Affections.
Grow from hence to the Composition of Words, and therein our Language hath a peculiar Grace, a like Significancie, and more short then the Greekes, for example, in Moldwarpe we express the Nature of the Animal; in Handkercher the thing and the use; in the word upright, that Virtue by a Metaphore; in Wisdome and Doomesday, so many Sentences as Words; and so of the rest: for I give only a Taste, that may direct others to a fuller Observation of what my sudden Memorie can represent unto me. It may pass also the Masters in this Significancie, that all the proper Names of our People do in a manner import somewhat, which from a peculiar Note at first of some of the Progenitors, in process of time inverted itself in a possession of the Posterity, even as wee see the like often befall to those whose Fathers bare some uncouth Christian Names. Yet for the most part we avoid the blemish given to the Romanes in like Cases, who distinguished their People by the Imperfections of their Bodies; from whence grew their Nasones, Labeones, Frontones, Dentones, and such like; however, Macrobius coloureth the same: Yea, so significant are our Words, that amongst them sundry single ones serve to express divers things; as by the word Bill is meant a Weapon, a Scrowle, and a Bird’s beake; by Grave may be understood, sober, burial-place, and to carve; and so by Light, marke, match, file, sore, and pray, the Semblables.
Again, some SENTENCES, in the same words carrie a divers Sence, as till, desert Ground; some signifie one thing forward and another backward, as Feeler I was, noe Foe; which to return with it is, Of one saw I releef. Some signifie one thing forward and another thing backward, as this, Eye, did Madam erre; Some carrie a contrarie Sence backward to that they do forward, as I did level ere vew, Vew ere level did I.
Some deliver a contrarie Sence by the divers pointing, as the
Epistle in Dr. Wilsons Rhetorick, and many such like, which a curious
Head, Leisure, and Time might pick out.
Neither may I omit the Significancie of our Proverbs, concise in Words, but plentiful in Number, briefly pointing at many great Matters and under a Circle of a few Sillables prescribing sundrie available Caveats.
Lastly, our Speech doth not consist onely of Words, but in a sort even of Deeds; as when we express a Matter by Metaphores, wherein the English is verie fruitful and forcible.
And so much for the Significancie of our Language in meaning.
II. Now for his EASINESS in learning; the same also shooteth out into Branches, the one, of others learning our Language, the second, of our learning that of others. For the first, The most part of our Words, (as I have touched) are Monasillables, and so the fewer in Tale and the sooner reduced to Memorie. Nither are we loaded with those Declensions, Flexions, and Variations which are incident to many other Tongues, but a few Articles govern all our Verbs and Nownes, and so we read a verie short Grammar.
For easie learning of other Languages by ours, let these serve as Proofes; there are many Italian words which the Frenchmen cannot pronounce, accio, for which he saith ashio; many of the French which the Italian can hardly dispence withall; as Bailler, Chagrin, Postillon; many in ours which neither of them can utter, as Hedge, Water, &c. So that a Stranger, tho never so long conversant amongst us, carrieth evermore a Watch-word upon his Tongue, to descrie him by; but turn an Englishman at any time of his Age into what Country soever, allowing him due respite, and you shall see him profit so well, that the imitation of his Utterance will in nothing differ from the Pattern of that native Language. The want of which towardness cost the Ephramites their Skinns: Nither doth this cross my former Assertion of others easie learning our Language. For I mean of the Sense and Words, and not touching the Pronunciation.
III. But I must now enter into the large Field of our Tongues COPIOUSNESS, and perhaps long wander up and down, without finding easie way of issue, and yet leaue many parts thereof unsurveyed.
My first Proofe of our Plenty, I borrow from the choise which is given us by the use of divers Languages. The Ground of our owne appertaineth to the old Saxon, little differing from the low Dutch, because they more than any of their Neighbours, have hitherto preserved that Speech from any great Forrein Mixture: here amongst, the Britons have left divers of their Words interspersed, as it were thereby making a continual claim to their possession. We may also trace the Footsteps of the Danish bitter (though not long during) Soveraigntie in these parts; and the Roman also imparted unto us of his Latine Riches with no sparing Hand. Our Neighbours the French have been likewise contented we should take up by retail, as well their Terms as their Fashions, or rather we retaine yet but some Remnant of that which once here bare all the Sway, and daily renew the Store. So have our Italian Travellers brought us acquainted with their sweete relished Phrases, which (so that their Conditions crept not in withall) were the more tollerable; yea even we seek to make our Good of our late Spanish Enimie, and feare as little the hurt of his Tongue, as the dint of his Sword. Seeing then we borrow (and that not shamefully) from the Dutch, the Britaine, the Roman, the Dane, the French, the Italian, and Spaniard, how can our Stock be other than exceeding plentifull? It may be objected, that such patching maketh Littletons Hotch-pot of our Tongue, and in effect, brings the same rather to a Babelish Confusion, than any one entire Language. It may again be answered, that this Theft of Words is no less warranted by the Priviledge of a Prescription ancient and universall, than was that of Goods among the Lacedemonians by an enacted Law: for so the Greekes robbed the Hebrewes, the Latines the Greeks, (which filching, Cicero with a large Discourse in his Books de Oratore defendeth) and (in a manner) all other Christian Nations the Latine. For evidence hereof many Sentences may be produced consisting of words, that in their Original are Latine; and yet (save some smal variance in their Terminations) fall out al one with the French, Dutch, and English; as Ley, ceremonious persons, Offer prelate preest, Clear candles flamme, in Temple Cloistre, in Cholericke Temprature, Clisters Purgation is pestelent, Pulers preservative, subtil Factors, Advocates notaries practize, Papers Libells, Registers, Regent, Magesty in Palace hath tryumphant Throne, Regiment, Sceptre, Vassels, Supplication, and such like. Then even as the Italian Potentates of these Dayes make no difference in their Pedigrees and Successions, between’the Bed lawfull or unlawfull, where either an utterward or a better desert doth force or entice them thereunto: so may the consenting practise of these Nations passe for a just Legitimation of these bastard Words, which either Necessitie or Convenience hath induced them to adopt.
For our owne parts, we employ the borrowed Ware so farre to our advantage, that we raise a profit of new words from the same Stock, which yet in their owne Country are not marchantable. For example, we deduce divers words from the Latine, which in the Latine itselfe cannot be yeelded: as the verbs, to aire, to beard, to crosse, to flame, and their Derivations, ayring, ayred, bearder, bearding, bearded, &c. as also closer, closely, closenesse, glosingly, hourely, majesticall, majestically. In like sort we grasse upon French words those Buds, to which that soile affordeth no growth; as, chiefly, faultie, slavish, precisenesse. Divers words we derive also out of the Latine at second hand by the French, and make good English, tho’ both Latine and French haue their hands closed in that behalfe, as in these verbes, pray, point, paze, prest, rent, &c. and also in the adverbes, carpingly, currantly, colourably, actively, &c. Againe, in other Languages there fall out defects, while they want means to deliver that which another Tongue expresseth, as (by Cicero’s Observation) you cannot interpret INEPTUS, unapt, unfit, untoward, in Greeke. Neither PORCUS, CAPO, VERVEX, a Barrow Hog, a Capon, a Weather, as Cuiacius noteth (*). No more can you expresse to STAND in French, to TYE in Cornish, nor KNAVE in Latin, (for Nebulo is a cloudy Fellow) or in Irish (**), whereas you see our Abilitie extendeth thereunto.
(*) Ad Tit. de verb signif.
(**) See the Survey of Cornwall fol. 55]
Moreover, the Copiousnesse of our Language appeareth in the diversitie of our Dialects; for we have Court and we have Countrie English, we have Northerne and Southerne, grosse and ordinarie, which differ each from the other not onely in the Terminations, but also in many words, termes, and phrases, and expresse the same thinges in divers sorts, yet all right English alike. Neither can any Tongue, as I am perswaded, deliver a Matter with more Variety than ours, both plainly, and by Proverbes and Metaphors: for example, when we would be rid of one, we use to say, Be going, trudge, packe, bee faring hence, away shift; and by Circumlocution, Rather your Roome than your Companie, lets see your backe, come againe when I bid you, when you are called, sent for, intreated, willed, desired, invited; spare us your place, another in your stead, a ship of salt for you, save your credite, you are next the doore, the doore is open for you, there is no body holdeth you, no body teares your sleeve, &c. Likewise this word FORTIS, we may sinonymize after all these fashions, stout, hardy, valiant, doughty, couragious, adventrous, &c.
And in a word, to close up these proofs of our Copiousnesse, look into our imitations, of all sorts of Verses affoorded by any other Language, and you shall finde that Sir PHILIP SIDNEY, M. PUTTENHAM, M. STANIHURST, and divers more have made use how farre we are within compasse of a fore-imagined possibilitie in that behalfe.
IV. I come now to the last and sweetest point, of the SWEETNESSE of our Tongue, which shall appeare the more plainely if we match it with our Neighboures. The Italian is pleasante, but without Sinews, as a still fleeting Water; the French delicate, but even nice as a Woman, scarce daring to open her Lippes, for feare of marring her Countenance; the Spanish Majestical, but fulsome, running too much on the v, and terrible like the Devill in a Play; the Dutch manlike, but withall very harsh, as one ready at every word to picke a quarrel. Now we, in borrowing from them, give the Strength of Consonants to the Italian, the full Sound of Words to the French, the Varietie of Terminations to the Spanish, and the mollifying of more Vowels to the Dutch; and so, like Bees, gather the Honey of their good Properties, and leave the Dregs to themselves. And thus when substantialnesse combineth with delightfullnesse, fullnesse with finenesse, seemlinesse with portlinesse, and currantnesse with staidnesse, how can the Language which consisteth of all these sound other than most full of Sweetnesse?
Againe, the long wordes that we borrow being intermingled with the short of our owne store, make up a perfect Harmonie, by culling from out which Mixture (with judgment) you may frame your Speech according to the Matter you must worke on, majesticall, pleasant, delicate, or manly, more or lesse, in what sort you please. Adde hereunto, that whatsoever Grace any other Language carrieth in Verse or Prose, in Tropes or Metaphors, in Eccho’s and Agnominations, they may all be lively and exactly represented in ours. Will you have Plato’s Veine? read Sir THOMAS SMITH; the Ionicke? Sir THOMAS MOORE; Cicero’s? ASCHAM; Varro? CHAUCER; Demosthenes? Sir JOHN CHEEKE (*); who hath comprised all the Figures of Rhetoricke. Will you read Virgil? take the Earle of SURRY; Catullus? SHAKSPEARE, and BARLOWES Fragment; Ovid? DANIEL; Lucan? SPENCER; Martial? Sir JOHN DAVIES, and others. Will you have all in all for Prose and Verse? take the Miracle of our Age, Sir PHILIP SIDNEY.
(*) In his Treatise to the rebells.
And thus, if mine owne Eies bee not blinded by Affection, I haue made yours to see, that the most renowned of all other Nations have laid up, as in a Treasure, and entrusted the Divtisos orbe Brttannos with the rarest Jewels of the Lips Perfections; whether you respect the Understanding for Significancie, or the Memorie for Easinesse, or the Conceit for Plentifullnesse, or the Eare for Pleasantnesse: wherein if enough be delivered, to add more than enough were superfluous; if too little, I leave it to be supplied by better stored Capacities; if ought amisse, I submit the same to the Discipline of everie able and impartiall Censurer.
F I N I S.
i) This transcript retains the original spelling, except for the obsolete “long ess” character which has been replaced by ‘s’ throughout.
Spellings of proper names tend to be phonetic and
haphazard. Eg Pensanz, Pensans, Pensants, Pensance, and
Penzance are all the same place.
ii) The Latin is worse than the English. I am 99.9% certain that I have transcribed it correctly, the doubt being where the printer has randomly mixed the “long ess” and “f” characters & neither form is in my Collin’s Little Gem Latin Dictionary.
iii) This transcript omits the original page numbering from the introduction and appendix, but retains it in the main text to support cross-referencing and the index.
Each double-page spread was given a single page number.
I have given these in s at the beginning of the left-
iv) Marginalia have been inserted into the text surrounded
v) Footnotes have been placed beneath the sections to
which they refer.
vi) Italics, which Carew uses heavily, have been mostly
removed, but sometimes replaced with quotes.
vii) The original capitalisation & over-punctuation is retained.