The Survey of Cornwall The Second Book by Richard Carew
THE SVRVEY OF CORNWALL.
The second Booke.
IN this second booke I will first report what I haue learned of Cornwall, and Cornishmen in general, and from thence descend to the particular places and persons, as their note-worthie site, or any memorable action, or accident, of the former or later ages, shall offer occasion.
The highest which my search can reach vnto, I borrow out of Strabo, who writeth, that the Westerne Bretons gaue ayde vnto the Armorici of Fraunce, against Caesar, which hee pretended for one of the causes, why he inuaded this Iland.
Next I find, that about sixtie yeeres from the landing of Hengist, [Anno Do. 509.] one Nazaleod, a mightie King amongst the Bretons, ioyned battell with Certicus, Soueraigne of the West-Saxons, and after long fight, with his owne death accompanied the ouerthrow of his armie. [519.] Yet, the Bretons, thus abandoned by fortune, would not so forsake themselues, but with renued courage, and forces, coped once againe with Certicus, and his sonne Kenrick, at [97 Certicesford, thogh equally destitute of successe as before.
[590.] Gurmund, an arch Pirate of the Norwegians, was called by the Saxons, out of his late conquered Ireland, to their aide, against Careticus king of the Bretons; whom he ouercame in battel, and inforced his subiects to seeke safegard by flight, some in Wales, some in Cornwall, and some in little Breteigne: since which time, they could neuer recouer againe their auncient possession of the whole Iland.
[688.] Howbeit, not long after, Iuor, sonne to Alane, king of the said little Breteigne, landed in the West parts, wanne from the Saxons, Cornwall, Deuon, & Somerset shires, by force of armes, and then established his conquest, by a peaceable composition with his aduerse partie.
[720.] Adelred, king of West-sex, inuaded Deuon and Cornwall, whom Roderick, king of the Bretons, and Blederick Prince of those prouinces, encountred and discomfited: [750.] which notwithstanding, processe of time reaued from, him, and added such strength to his enemies, that he was driuen to abandon Cornwall, and retire into Wales.
[809.] So, the Cornishmen quitting their libertie with their prince, stouped to the commaund of Egbert King of West-sex, and with their territorie (saith William Malmsburie) enlarged his confines.
[937.] Athelstane handled them yet more extremely; for hee draue them out of Excester, where, till then, they bare equall sway with the Saxons, & left onely the narrow angle on the West of Tamer riuer, for their Inhabitance, which hath euer since beene their fatall bound.
On their Reguli (as Vincentius deliuereth) he imposed an yerely tribute, of 20. li. in gold, 300. li. in siluer, 25. oxen, and hunting hounds and hawkes, at discretion.
[997.] To these afflictions by home-neighbours of bondage, tribute, and banishing, was ioyned a fourth, of spoyling by forrayne enemies: for Roger Houedon telleth vs, that the Danes landed in sundry places of Cornwall, forrayed the Countrey, burned the Townes, and killed the people.
[1068.] To whom succeeded in the like occupation, Godwin, and Edmond magnus, King Harolds two sonnes, discomfiting the forces opposed against them, harrowing Deuon and Cornwall, and then retiring with their prey into Ireland.
[113.] After the conquest, when K. H. the first inuaded. Griffin ap Conan Prince of Wales, he distributed his armie into three portions, one of which (wherein consisted the forces of the fourth part of England and Cornwal) hee committed to the leading of Gilbert Earl of Strigill.
[1227.] In Henry the thirds time, by the testimony of Mathew Paris, William Earle of Sarum, after long tossing at sea, with much adoe, about Christmas arriued in Cornwall; and so afterwards, did Earl Richard, the Kings brother, at two seuerall times: the later of which, being destitute of horses and treasure, he prayed therein ayde of his loyals.
[1339.] When Edward the third auerred his right to the Crowne of Fraunce, by the euidence of armes, the French for a counterplea, made an vnlawfull entry into Deuon and Cornwall; but Hugh Courtney Earle of Deuon, remooued it with posse Comitatus, and recommitted them to the wooden prison that brought them thither. Yet would not the Scots take so much warning by their successe, as example by their precedent, if at least, Froissarts  ignorance of our English names, bred not his mistaking in the place.
By his relation aso, Cornwalls neere neighbourhead gaue oportunity of accesse, both to the Earle Montford, when he appealed to that Kings ayd, for recouering his right in Brittaine (albeit I cannot bring home Cepsee the designed port of his landing) and after his captiuitie, to the messengers of his heroicall Countesse, employed in the like errand.
And from Cornwall, the Earle of Sarum, Wil. de Mesuile and Philip de Courtney, set to sea, with 40. ships, besides Barks, and 2000. men at armes, besides Archers, in support of that quarrell.
Lastly, his authoritie enformeth me, that those souldiers of Cornwall, who vnder their Captaines Iohn Apport and Iohn Cornwall, had defended the Fort of Bercherel in Brittaine, against the power of Fraunce, aboue a yeres space, in the end, for want of due succours, vpon an honourable composition surrendred the same.
[1471.] Queene Margaret, wife to H. 6. vpon her arriual out of Fraunce, after the losse of Barnet field, receiued great ayd, though to smal purpose, from the Deuon and Cornish men, vnder the conduct of Thomas, Earle of that shire.
[1485.] And so much were those Western people addicted to that name, as they readily followed Sir Edw. Courtney, & his brother Peter, Bishop of Excester, what time the assisted the Duke of Buckingham, in his reuolt against Richard the third.
[1497.] Neither did his suppressour and successour, H. the 7. finde them more loyall: for the Cornish men repining at a Subsidy lately graunted him by Act of Parliament, were induced to rebellion, by Thomas Flammock, a Gentleman, & Michael Ioseph, a Black-smith, with whom they marched to Taunton, there murdering the prouost of Perin, a Commissioner for the sayd Subsidy, and from thence to Welles, where Iames Touchet, Lord Audely, degenerated to their party, with which encrease they passed by Sarisbury to Winchester, and so into Kent. But by this time, Lords & Commons were gathered in strength sufficient, to make head against them, and soone after, black Heath saw the ouerthrow of their forces, in battell, and London, the punishment of their seducers by iustice.
In the same fatall yeere of reuolts, Perkin Warbeck, a counterfeit Prince, landed in Cornwall, went to Bodmyn, assembled a trayne of rake-hels, assaulted Excester, receyued the repulse, and in the end sped, as is knowne, and as he deserued.
[1549.] The last Cornish rebellion, was first occasioned by one Kilter, and other his associats of a Westerne parish, called, S. Keueren, who imbrued their wicked hands in the guiltles blood of one M. Body, as he sate in Commission at Helston for matters of reformation in religion: and the yere following, it grew to a general reuolt, vnder the conduct of Arundel, Wydeslade, Resogan, and others, followed by 6000. with which power they marched into Deuon, besieged and assaulted Excester, & gaue the L. Russell (employed with an army against them) more then one hot encounter, which yet (as euer) quayled in their ouerthrow.
In my particular view, I will make easie iournies from place to place, as they lye in my way, taking the Hundreds for my guydes, vntill I haue accomplished this wearisome voyage.
My first entrance must be by the hundred of East, so named for his site, and therein, at Plymouth hauen. It borroweth that name of the riuer Plym, which rising in Deuon, and by the way baptizing Plymston, Plymstock, &c. here emptieth it selfe into the sea. The hauen parteth Deuon and Cornwall welneere euery where, as Tamer riuer runneth: I say welneere, because some few interlaced places are excepted: a matter so sorted at the first partition, eyther to satisfie the affection of some speciall persons, or to appropriate the soyle to the former Lords, or that (notwithstanding this seuerance) there might stil rest some cause of entercourse between the Inhabitants of both Counties: as I haue heard, a late great man ensued, and expressed the like consideration, in diuision of his lands between two of his sonnes.
Now though this hauen thus bound both shires, yet doth the iurisdiction of the water wholly appertayne to the Duchy of Cornwall, and may therefore bee claymed as a part of that County. Notwithstanding, I will forbeare what I may, to intrude vpon my good friend M. Hookers limits, and reserue to him the description of the farther shore.
The first promontory of this harbour on the West side, is Rame head, by his proportion, receyuing, and by his possession, giuing, that name and armes to his owner, whose posterity conueyed it by inter-marriages, from Durnford, to Edgecumb: on the toppe thereof riseth a little vaulted Chappell, which serueth for a marke at sea.
From thence trending Penlee poynt, you discouer Kings sand and Causam Bay, an open roade, yet sometimes affoording succour to the woorst sort of Seafarers, as not subiect to comptrolment of Plymouth forts. The shore is peopled with some dwelling houses, and many Cellers, dearely rented for a short vsage, in sauing of Pilcherd. At which time, there flocketh a great concourse of Sayners, and others, depending vpon their labour. I haue heard the Inhabitants thereabouts to report, that the Earle of Richmond (afterwards Henry the seuenth) while hee houered vpon the coast, here by stealth refreshed himselfe; but being aduertised of streight watch, kept for his surprising at Plymouth, he richly rewarded his hoste, hyed speedily a shipboord, and escaped happily to a better fortune.
Here also of late yeeres, part of the Cornish forces twise encamped themselues, planted some Ordinance, and raised a weake kind of fortification, therethrough to contest, if not repulse, the landing of the expected enemie: and a strong watch is continually kept there, euer since one thousand, fiue hundred, ninetie seuen: at which time, a Spaniard riding on the Bay, while most of the able people gaue their attendance at the Countie Assises, sent some closely into the village, in the darke of the night, who hanged vp barrels of matter fit to take fire, vpon certaine doores, which by a traine should haue burned the houses. But one of the Inhabitants, espying these vnwelcome ghests, with the bounce of a Caliuer chaced them aboord, and remoued the barrels, before the traynes came to worke their effect. The Inginer of this practise, (as hath since appeared by some examinations) was a Portugall, who sometimes sayled with Sir Iohn Borowghs, and boasted to haue burned his Ship: for which two honourable exploits, the King of Spaine bestowed on him two hundred duckets.
In the mouth of the harbour, lyeth S. Nicholas Iland, in fashion, losengy, in quantity, about 3. acres, strongly fortifyed, carefully garded, and subiect to the Commaunder of Plymmouth fort.
When the Cornish rebels, during Edw. the 6. raigne, turmoyled the quiet of those quarters, it yeelded a safe protection to diuers dutyful subiects, who there shrowded themselues.
From this Iland, a range of rocks reacheth ouer to the Southwest shore, discouered at the low water of Spring tides, and leauing onely a narrow entrance in the midst, called the Yate, for ships to passe thorow, whereto they are directed by certaine markes at land.
Vpon this South shore, somewhat within the Iland, standeth mount Edgecumb, a house builded and named by Sir Ric. Edgecumb, father to the now possessioner: and if comparisons were as lawfull in the making, as they prooue odious in the matching, I would presume to ranke it, for health, pleasure, and commodities, with any subiects house of his degree in England. It is seated against the North, on the declining of a hill, in the midst of a Deere park, neere a narrow entrance, thorow which the salt water breaketh vp into the country, to shape the greatest part of the hauen. The house is builded square, with a round turret at eche end, garretted on the top, & the hall rising in the mids aboue the rest, which yeeldeth a stately sound, as you enter the same. In Summer, the opened casements admit a refreshing coolenes: in Winter, the two closed doores exclude all offensiue coldnesse: the parlour and dining chamber giue you a large & diuersified prospect of land & sea; to which vnderly S. Nicholas Iland, Plymmouth fort, & the townes of Plymmouth, Stonehouse, Milbrook, & Saltajh. It is supplyed with a neuer-fayling spring of water, and the dwelling stored with wood, timber, fruit, Deere, and Conies. The ground abundantly answereth a housekeepers necessities, for pasture, arable and meadow, and is replenished with a kinde of stone, seruing both for building, lyme, and marle. On the seaclifs groweth great plenty of the best Ore-wood, to satisfie the owners want, and accommodate his neighbours. A little below the house, in the Summer euenings, Sayne-boates come and draw with their nets for fish; whither the gentry of the house walking downe, take the pleasure of the sight, and sometimes at all aduentures, buy the profit of the draughts. Both sides of the forementioned narrowe entrance, together with the passage betweene, (much haunted as the high way to PIymmouth) the whole towne of Stonehouse, and a great circuit of the land adioyning, appertaine to M. Edgecumbs inheritance: these sides are fenced with blockhouses, and that next to Mount Edgecumb, was wont to be planted with ordinance, which at coming & parting, with their base voices greeted such ghests as visited the house, neither hath the opportunity of the harbour wanted occasions to bring them, or the owners a franke mind to inuite them. For proofe whereof, the earst remembred Sir Ric. (a gentleman in whom mildnes & stoutnes, diffidence & wisdome, deliberatenes of vndertaking, & sufficieney of effecting, made a more commendable, then blazing mixture of vertue) during Q. Ma. raigne, entertained at one time, for some good space, the Admirals of the English, Spanish, & Netherland fleets, with many noble men besides. But not too much of this, least a partiall affection steale, at vnwares, into my commendation, as one, by my mother, descended from his loynes, and by my birth, a member of the house.
Certaine olde ruines, yet remaining, confirme the neighbours report, that neere the waters side, there stood once a towne, called West stone house, vntill the French by fire and sword ouerthrew it.
In the yeere one thousand, fiue hundred, ninetie nine, the Spaniards vaunts caused the Cornish forces to aduance there a kind of fortification, and to plot the making of a Bridge on barges ouer that strait, for inhibiting the enemies accesse by boates and Gallies, into the more inward parts of the hauen. But it may be doubted, whether the bridge would haue proued as impossible, as the Sconce fell out vnnecessarie.
Master Peter Edgecumbe (commonly called Peers) married Margaret the daughter of Sir Andrew Lutterel, his father Sir Richard married [blank] the daughter of Tregian: his father Sir Peers married [blank] the daughter, and heire of Stephan Durnford: and his father Sir Richard, married [blank] the daughter of Tremayn. These names of Peers and Richard, they haue successiuely varied for sixe or seuen descents. Hee beareth for his Armes, Gules on a Bend ermine, betweene two Cotises, Or. 3. Bores heades coped, arg. armed as the third; Langued as the field.
A little inward from Mountedgecumb, lieth a safe and commodious Road for shipping, called Hamose, and compounded of the words Ose, and Ham, according to the nature of the place. Here those vessels cast anchor, which are bound to the Eastwards, as those doe in Catwater, who would fare to the West; because euerie wind that can erue them at Sea, will from thence carrie them out: which commoditie other roads doe not so conueniently affoord. It is reported, that in times past, there was an ordinary passage ouer this water, to a place on Deuon side, called Horsecoue, but long since discontinued.
At the higher end of a creek, passing vp from hence, Milbrook lurketh between two hilles, a village of some 80. houses, and borrowing his name from a mill and little brook, running therethrough. In my remembrance (which extendeth not to aboue 40. yeeres) this village tooke great encrease of wealth and buildings, through the iust and industrious trade of fishing, and had welneere forty ships and barks at one time belonging therevnto. But our late broyles with Spayne haue let vp a more compendious, though not so honest way of gayning, and begin by little and little, to reduce these plaine dealers, to their former vndeserued plight. Yet do they prescribe, in a suburbiall market (as I may terme it) to Plymmouth, for their reliefe, by intercepting, if not forestalling, such corne and victuals, as passing thorow their streights, cannot for want of time or weather, get ouer Crymell passage, to the other: and surely they are not unworthy of fauour: for this towne furnisheth more able Mariners at euery prest for her Highnesse seruice, then many others of far greater blaze.
It chanced about twenty yeeres sithence, that one Richaurd, wife to Richard Adams of this towne, was deliuered of two male children, the one ten weekes after the other, who liued vntil baptisme, & the later hitherto: Which might happen, in that the woman bearing twinnes, by some blow, slide, or other extraordinary accident, brought forth the first before his time, and the later in his due season. Now, that a childe borne in the seuenth moneth may liue, both Astrologers and Phisicions  doe affirme, but in the 8. they deny it; and these are their reasons: The Astrologers hold, that the child in the mothers wombe, is successiuely gouerned euery moneth, by the seuen Planets, beginning at Saturne: after which reckoning, he returning to his rule the 8, month, by his dreery influence, infortunateth any birth that shal then casually befall: whereas his succeeder Iupiter, by a better disposition worketh a more beneficiall effect. The Phisicions deliuer, that in the seuenth moneth, the childe, by course of nature, turneth it self in the mothers belly; wherefore, at that time, it is readier (as halfe loosed) to take issue by any outward chance. Mary, in the eighth, when it beginneth to settle againe, and as yet retayneth some weakenes of the former sturring, it requireth a more forcible occasion, & that induceth a slaughtering violence. Or if these coniecturall reasons suffice not to warrant a probability of the truth, Plynies authority in a stranger case, shall presse them farther: for hee writeth, that a woman brought a bed of one childe in the seuenth moneth, in the moneths following, was also deliuered of twinnes.
A part of Mount-Edgecumb, and of this Milbrook, though seuered from Deuon, by the generall bound, yet, vpon some of the foreremembred considerations, haue bene annexed thereunto.
Aside of Milbrook, lyeth the Peninsula of Inswork, on whose neckland standeth an ancient house of the Champernons, and descended by his daughters and heires, to Forteskew, Monck, and Treuilian, three Gentlemen of Deuon. The site is naturally both pleasant and profitable; to which, the owner by his ingenious experiments, daily addeth an artificiall surplusage.
Passing somewhat farther vp, you meet with the foot of Lyner, where it winneth fellowship with Tamer, that, till then, and this, yet longer, retayning their names, though their ouer-weake streames were long before confounded, by the predominant salt water. A little within this mouth of Lyner, standeth East-Antony, the poore home of mine ancestours, with which in this maner they were inuested: Sir Iohn Lerchedekne, Knight, and not priest, (for he was so called of his family, and not by his calling, as in Froissard you shall note the like, to be familiar amongst the nobility of Gascoigne) by Cecill, the daughter and heire of Iordan of Haccumb, had issue 9. sonnes, Ralph, Waryne, Richard, Otho, Iohn, Robert, Martyn, Reignald, and Michael. Richard married Ione, the daughter of Iohn Bosowr, that bare him Thomas, in whome the heires male of this multiplyed hope tooke an end. Warine, afterwards knighted, tooke to wife Elizabeth, one of the daughters and heires to Iohn Talbot de Castro Ricardi, and on her begat three daughters and heires. Allenor, wedded to Sir Walter Lucy: Margery, to Sir Thomas Arundel of Taluerne: and Philip, to Sir Hugh Courtney of Bauncton (which I take is now named Boconnock.) From Lucy descended the Lord Faux, and others. Margery dyed childlesse, anno 1419. as is testified by her toomb-stone in West-Antony Church, where shee lyeth buried. Sir Hugh Courtney was second sonne to Ed. Earle of Deuon, & had 2. wiues: the first, Maud, daughter of the L. Beaumond; to whose children, for want of issue in the elder stock, that Earledome deuolued, & the later, our foreremembred Philip, who left her inheritance to her only daughter Ione: and she taking a patterne from her fathers fortune, espoused likewise 2. husbands, viz. Sir Nicholas Baron of Carew, and Sir Robert Fere, brother to  Iohn Earle of Oxford: to Sir Nicholas, shee bare Thomas, Nicholas, Hugh, Alexander, and William: to Sir Robert, Iohn, and became widdow of both. And, as after the fathers decease, good agreement betweene the mother and eldest sonne hath commonly weake continuance, because both being enfranchised to a sudden absolute iurisdiction, neither of them can easily temper the same with a requisite moderation: so it chaunced, that shee and hers fell at square, which discord (with an vnnaturall extremity) brake forth into a blow, by him no lesse dearly, then vndutifully giuen his mother: for vpon so iust a cause, she disinherited him of all her lands, being seuenteene mannours, and bestowed them on her yonger sonnes. This I learned by the report of Sir Peter Carew, the elder of that name, and eldest of our stock (a Gentleman, whose rare worth my pen is not able to shaddow, much lesse with his due lineaments to represent) at such time, as being a scholler in Oxford of fourteene yeeres age, and three yeeres standing, vpon a wrong conceyued opinion touching my sufficiency, I was there called to dispute ex tempore (impar congressus Achilli) with the matchles Sir Ph. Sidney, in presence of the Earles, Leycester, Warwick, and diuers other great personages. By the forementioned conueyance, she disposed of her sayd mannours as followeth: Haccumb, Ringmore, and Milton, shee gaue to Nicholas: Lyham, Manedon, Combhall, and Southtawton, to Hugh: East-Antony, Shoggebroke, and Landegy, to Alexander: Wicheband, Widebridge, Bokeland, and Bledeuagh, to William: and lastly, Roseworthy, Bosewen, and Tregennow, to Iohn: al which she entailed to them, and the issue of their bodies, substituting, for want thereof, the one to be heire to the other: and in witnes hereof (sayth she in her conueyance) to each of these deedes fiue times indented, I haue set my seale ; and because my seale is to many vnknowne, haue procured the seale of the Maior of the Citie of Exon, to be also adioyned.
Thomas her eldest sonne, repayred this losse, in part, by matching with one of Carminowes, daughters and heires.
From Nicholas, is descended Carew of Haccumb, who by vertue of this entayle, succeeded also to Hughs portion, as deceasing issuelesse. From William is come Carew of Crocum in Somerset shire, and from Iohn Vere, the now Earle of Oxford, deriueth his pedigree. Alexander maried Elizabeth the daughter of Hatch, and begate Iohn, who tooke to wife Thamesin, one of the daughters and heires of Holland: their sonne Sir Wymond, espoused Martha, the daughter of Edmund, and sister to Sir Anthony Denny. Sir Wymond had Thomas, the husband of Elizabeth Edgecumb, and they myselfe, linked in matrimony with Iulian, daughter to Iohn Arundel of Trerice, and one of the heires to her mother Catherine Cosewarth, who hath made me father of Richard, lately wedded to Briget, daughter of Iohn Chudleigh of Ashton in Deuon.
Touching our stock in generall, and my family in particular, being once vainly disposed (I would it had bene but once) I made this idle obseruation.
CArew of ancient Carru was,
And Carru is a plowe,
Romanes the trade, Frenchmen the word,
I doe the name auowe.
The elder stock, and we a braunch,
At Phoebes gouerning.
From fire to sonne, doe waxe and wane,
By thrift and lauishing.
The fire, not valuing at due price
His wealth, it throwes away:
The sonne, by seruice or by match,
Repaireth this decay.
The smelling fence we sundry want,
But want it without lack:
For t’is no sense, to wish a weale,
That brings a greater wrack.
Through natures marke, we owne our babes,
By tip of th’ upper lip;
Black-bearded all the race, saue mine,
Wrong dide by mothership.
The Barons wife, Arch-deacons heire,
Vnto her yonger sonne
Gaue Antony, which downe to me,
By 4. descents hath runne.
All which, and all their wiues, exprest
A Turtles single loue,
And neuer did tha’duentrous change,
Of double wedding proue.
We are the fist: to swarue herefrom,
I will not though I could,
As for my wife, God may dispose,
Shee shall not, though she would.
Our family transplants it selfe,
To grow in other shires,
And Countrey rather makes then takes,
As best behoofe appeares.
Children thrice three God hath vs lent,
Two sonnes, and then a mayd,
By order borne, of which, one third
We in the graue haue layd.
Our eldest daughter widow fell,
Before our yongest borne:
So doe hard haps vnlooked come,
So are our hopes forlorne.
Mine trebled haue in either sexe,
Those which my parents got,
And yet but halfed them, which God
My graundsire did allot:
Whose grace in Court, rarely obtayned,
To th’yongst of those eighteene,
Three Kings of England Godfathers,
For Godmother, our Queene.
The Armes of our family, are Or. 3. Lyons passant, sable: armed and
It exceedeth good maners, to inuite your longer stay at our cold harbour; and yet, for that diuers strangers haue, either vpon cause or kindnesse, pretended to like well of a saltwater pond there made; and others, whose dwelling affoordeth a semblable oportunity, may (perhaps) take some light herefrom, to doe the like: if they be so disposed, I will put my selfe to the payne of particularly describing it, and you may (notwithstanding) at your pleasure, saue the labour of perusing it; wherein I will by the way interlace some notes, for the Imitaters better instruction.
There lyeth a creeke of Ose, betweene two hilles, which deliuering a little fresh rillet into the sea, receyueth for recompence, a large ouerflowing of the salt water tides. This place is deepened to a pond, by casting vp part of the Ose to the heades, part to the middle, and part to the sides: the vpper head stoppeth out the fresh water, the lower keepeth in the salt: the middle rayseth an Iland for the Workmens  ease, the owners pleasure, and the fishes succour. The Ose thus aduaunced, within short space, through the sunne and winde, changeth his former softnes, to a firmer hardnesse. Round about the pond, there is pitched a frith of three foote heighth, sloped inwards, to barre any Otter from issuing, if hee there aduenture his naturall theft, as it would foreclose his entrance, but lose the pastime of his hunting, if the same declined outwards. In one of the corners next the sea, standeth a flood-gate, to bee drawne vp and let downe through reigles in the side postes, whose mouth is encompassed with a double frith, of two foote distance, eche from other, and their middle space filled vp with small stones: this serueth to let in the salt water, and to keepe in the fish, when the flood-gate is taken vp: and therefore you must not make the frith too close, nor the compasse too little, lest they too much stop the waters passage. It riseth of equall heighth with the banks, & they must outreach the highest full sea mark, by two foot at least: neyther ought your flood-gates foote to stand euen with the pondes bottome, lest emptying the water, it wholly abandon the fish, but must leaue about three foot depth within. In the halfe circle enclosed between the flood-gate and the compasse frith, there is digged a round pit, of three foot diameter, and foure foot depth, frithed on the sides, which is continually fedde with the water soaking from the sayd flood-gate, and serueth to keepe any fish aliue, that you haue before taken, and so to saue ouer often drawing. The floodgate will hold water best, if his sides be walled vp with Cob. The pond may not carry one continuall depth, but containe some shallow places, to protect the smaller fish from the greater, and for them all to play in, when the weather is hote. In the higher banke there is also a flood-gate, to let in the fresh water, during Summer season, which the fish then best affecteth; the rest of the yeere it is carryed away by a trench, for auoyding diuers discommodities.
Thus much for the making: now to the vse. Such as haue the meanes, may best benefit themselues, by letting in the salt water euery tyde, which is easily done, in making that place, where the water entreth, lower then the bankes and frith, and so suffering the tyde to take his course forth and back, without stop or attendance: and in this case, you may place your flood-gate euen with the floore of your pond, and neuer take it vp, but when you are disposed to view all your store. But mine lieth so high from the mouth of the hauen, as I am driuen to detayne the last prouision, vntill the comming spring-tyde haue taken two daies encrease; at which time, the flood-gate is hoysed vp, the old water let out, and the new admitted. At full sea downe goeth the flood-gate againe, and there abideth, vntill the next day minister the like ocasion: and after this maner is opened and closed, for sixe dayes in the whole, continuing from thenceforth other ten dayes vnmedled withall, to wit, 8. daies of the neap, & two of the spring. Neither doth al this require ouer-long, or busie paines or attendance: for if the former water be let out (sauing in extreme cold weather) before any new come in, or stopped somewhat too late, it little skilleth, so as on the last day you keepe the aduantage, which the flood, then at highest, doth giue you.
And all these seruices about my pond, together with sundry other, are performed by an old fellow whome I  keepe for almes, and not for his worke. The best meanes of preuenting leakage, is to let three or foure shouels full of earth fall softly downe, by the inner side of the flood-gate, which will quurt vp his chinkes.
In winter season, sixe foote depth of water, at least, is requisite.
Now touching the fish, this is the maner: when the Pilcherd Sayners cut the most impayred pieces out of their nets, they are bought for a trifle, and serue to make a lesse Sayne, of fome 30. or 40. fathom length, and 2. in depth, for this purpose, wherewith, betweene Midsummer and the end of August, when the full sea falleth in the after-noones, my people make draughtes on the shallow places within harbour, and taking small fishes, cast them into the pond: they are kept & brought thither aliue, in a boat halfe full of water, which entreth thorow a little augre hole in the bottome, and so continueth new. The fish thus taken, are commonly Basse, Millet, Guilthead, Whiting, Smelts, Flouk, Plaice, and Sole. The pond also breedeth Crabs, Eeles, & Shrimps; and (in the beginning) Oysters grew vpon boughs of trees (an Indian miracle) which were cast in thither, to serue as a houer for the fish. The Basse and Millet do also spawn there, but whether they ouerliue their breeders rauening, to any big growth, I am not certayne. The pond will moreouer keepe Shote, Peale, Trought, and Sammon, in seasonable plight, but not in their wonted reddish graine. They feed on salt vnmarchantable Pilcherd, small fish, called Brit, and Barne, Tag-wormes, Lugges, little Crabs, & the liuers of beasts: the rest deuoure their meat, but the Millets content themselues with sucking it, and chawing of the sedge. Euery euening they come to a place certain in the pond, for receiuing their allowed pittance, and in Summer, approche very neere, and in the top of the water plainly discouer themselues. They were first trayned hereunto, by throwing in their bayte at the ponds mouth, as they resorted thither, to take pleasure of the new entring water, and are now become alike tame, with those in the Sicilian riuer Elorus, for which, Leonicus voucheth the testimony of Apollodorus. If they be absent, a knocking, like the chopping of their meat, serueth for a summons to call them, & confirmeth Plynies assertion, that fishes do heare. In the hotest Summer weather, they swimme with the ryme of the water; and in the Winter, keepe the depth. Lymy, or thicke puddelly water, killeth them: they grow very fast, and fatte, which also bettereth their taste, and deliuereth them to the demaunders ready vse, at all seasons, seasonable.
They are taken generally, by a little Sayne net: specially the Eeles in weelies: the Flowks, by groping in the sand, at the mouth of the pond, where (about Lent) they bury themselues to spawn; & the Basse and Millet by angling.
The pleasure which I took at my friends pleasure herein, idlely busied me thus to expresse the same.
I Wayt not at the Lawyers gates,
Ne shoulder clymers downe the stayres;
I vaunt not manhood by debates,
I enuy not the misers feares:
But meane in state, and calme in sprite,
My fishfull pond is my delight.
Where equall distant Iland viewes
His forced banks, and Otters cage :
Where salt and fresh the poole renues,
As Spring and drowth encrease or swage:
Where boat presents his seruice prest,
And net becomes the fishes nest;
There sucking Millet, swallowing Basse,
Side-walking Crab, wry-mouthed Flooke,
And flip-fist Eele, as euenings passe,
For safe bayt at due place doe looke:
Bold to approche, quick to espy,
Greedy to catch, ready to fly.
In heat the top, in cold the deepe:
In spring the mouth, the mids in neap:
With changelesse change by shoales they keepe,
Fat, fruitfull, ready, but not cheap :
Thus meane in state, and calme in sprite,
My fishfull pond is my delight.
STench-louing Flies, their father heat,
On mother, moysture doth beget;
Who feeling force of Sunne too great,
Their course vnto some water set,
There meane of calmy ayre to proue,
Twixt coole below and warmth aboue.
But carelesse of foresight in weale,
The euening deaw droplodes their wing,
So forst, downe-falne, for flight to fayle,
With buzzing moane their bane they sing,
Fluttering in waue, swimming in ayre,
That, weake to drowne, and this, to beare.
While thus they can nor liue nor dye,
Nor water-gieu’d, escape away,
The fish and swallowes it espie,
And both them challenge for their pray;
The fish as caught within their toyle,
The Swallowes as their kindely spoyle.
The fish, like Swallowes, mount on high,
The Swallowes, fish-like diue in waue,
These, finlesse swimme, those, winglesse fly,
One bent their diuers ventures haue,
Fish in the drye, Swallowes in wet,
By kinde ‘gainst kinde their prey to get.
Their push a bubble vp doth reare,
The bubble driues the Fly to brinke:
So Fish in vaine deuoure the ayre,
Swallowes in vayne the water drinke,
While Fly escapes, this sport I take.
Where pond doth th’ Ocean captiue make.
I carried once a purpose, to build a little woodden banqueting house, on the Iland in my pond, which because some other may (perhaps) elsewhere put in execution, it wil not do much amisse, to deliuer you the plot, as the same was deuised for mee, by that perfectly accomplished gentleman, the late Sir Arthure Champernowne.
The Iland is square, with foure rounds at the corners, like Mount-Edgecumb. This should first have bene planched ouer and rayled about, with ballisters. In themidst, there should haue risen a boorded roome, of the like fashion, but lesser proportion, so to leaue sufficient space betweene that and the rayles for a walke round about: this square roome should within side haue bene sieled roundwise, and in three of the places where  the round joyned with the square, as many windowes should haue bene set; the fourth should haue serued for a dore. Of the 4. turrets, shut out by this round, one should haue made a kitchin, the second, a store-house, to keepe the fishing implements, the third, a buttery, & the fourth a stayre, for ascending to the next loft: which next loft should haue risen on the flat roofe of the lower, in a round forme, but of a lesser size againe, so to leaue a second Tarras, like the other: and as the square roome below was sieled round, so should this vpper round roome be sieled square, to the end, that where the side walks and sieling ioyned, three windowes and a doore might likewise find their places. The voyd spaces be- tweene the round and square, hee would haue turned to Cupboards and boxes, for keeping other necessary vtensiles, towards these fishing feasts.
Ouer-against this pond, lyeth beggers Iland, so called (as our neighbours relate) euer since my great grandsire espying 2. of that idle occupation, at a hote combate on the shore, while he was rowing homewards from Saltash, tooke them into his boat, & there set them on land, to try (as in a lists) the vttermost of their quarrell: which place they could not quit, vntil the low water should enfranchise them by wading & the respite, vent out the alye fume of their fury.
About 40. yeres agoe, it chanced, that a boat ouer-fraighted with people, in rowing downe the riuer from Saltash market, was by the extreme weather, sunk, neere to a place called Henpoint, and all the folke drowned, sauing one onely woman, named Agnes, the wife of one Cornish, whom it pleased God so to protect and direct, that in her first popping vp againe (which most liuing things accustome) shee espyed the boat (after it had discharged his burthen) risen likewise, and floting by her, full of water, whereon she got holde, sate astride vpon one of his sides, and by the winde and tyde, was vnusually, and almost miraculously driuen athwart the chanell, to a place called Wilcoue, where shee no sooner stepped ashore, but the boat (as hauing done his enioyned errand) presently recommited it selfe to the stormes disposition.
The woman thus freed from one peril at sea, aduentured another of little lesse consequence at land; for being not yet thoroughly restored to her sense, she clymed vp the cliffe in such a steepe place, as the very consideration thereof, doth euer sithence halfe amaze the beholders. But that ground was fore ordained to her good: for not long after, her husband tooke the same, with the rest of the tenement, in lease; and it now serueth her for a dwelling, and many others, by her charitie, for a reliefe.
Her sayd husband, & their two onely sonnes, at seuerall times, by one kind of misfortune, found their buriall in the waues.
The Oysters dredged in this Lyner, finde a welcomer acceptance, where the taste, & not appetite, is Cater for the stomack, then those of the adioyning Tamer, which groweth (as I coniecture) because Lyners lesser streame leaueth them to bee seasoned, with a more kindely and better relished saltnes.
The next parish vpon this riuer, is called Sheuiock, somtimes the ancient Dannyes inheritance & inhabitance: by whose daughter and heire, the same (together with other faire possessions) descended to the Earles of Deuon. In  the church there lie two Knights of that name, and one of their ladies by her husbands side, having their pictures embossed on their tombes in the side walles, and their Armes once painted round about; but now by the malice, not of men, but of time, defaced. They are held to be father and sonne, and that the sonne slayne in our warres with Fraunce, was from thence brought home to be here interred. There runneth also a tale amongst the parishioners, how one of these Dannyes ancestours vndertook to build the Church, and his wife the barne adioyning, and that, casting vp their accounts, vpon finishing of their workes, the barne was found to cost three halfepence more then the Church: and so it might well fall out: for it is a great barne, and a little Church.
In this parish standeth Crasthole, which by the high site, might more fitly be termed Open hill, a poore village but a much frequented thorow-fare, somewhat infamous, not vpon any present desert, but through an inueterate byword, viz. that it is peopled with 12. dwellings, and 13. cuckolds: for as the dwellings are more then doubled, so (I hope) the cuckolds are lesse then singled.
Howsoeuer, many wayfarers make themselues glee, by putting the Inhabitants in minde of this priuiledge; who againe, especially the women (like the Campellians in the North, and the London Bargers) forslow not to baigne them (vnlesse they plead their heels the faster) with a worse perfume, then Iugurth found fault with in the dungeon, where the Romanes buried him aliue, to attend his languishing and miserable death.
Vpon Sheuiock abbutteth S. Germanes, the greatest parish in Cornwall, if you ioyne to the store of people, the quantity and quality of the soyle, wherethrough it affoordeth commodious dwellings to sundry ancient Gentlemen, and wealthy Farmours; amongst which first sort, I may not (without withdrawing my testimony due to vertue) omit M. George Keckwitch of Catch-French, a house so named (by likelyhood) for some former memorable, though now forgotten accident, whose continuall, large, and inquisitiue liberality to the poore, did in the late deare yeres, extraordinarily extend it selfe to an inuiting emulation, but beyond the apprehensiue imitation of any other in the shire. He hath issue by Blanch, the daughter of Sir Frauncis Godolphin: his father George, maried Buller: his graundsire [blank] their ancient dwelling was in Essex, where this Gentleman enioyeth fayre possessions, & beareth for his armes, Ar. two Lyons in bend passant Sa. cotifed, G.
The Church towne mustreth many inhabitants, and sundry ruines, but little wealth, occasioned eyther through abandoning their fishing trade, as some conceiue, or by their being abandoned of the religious people, as the greater sort imagine: for in former times, the Bishop of Cornwals See, was from S. Petrocks in Bodmyn, remooued hither; as from hence, when the Cornish Dioces vnited with Deuon, it passed to Crediton: and lastly, from thence to Excester. But this first losse receyued reliefe through a succeeding Priory, which at the general suppression, changing his note with his coate, is now named Port Eliot, and by the owners charity distributeth, pro virili, the almes accustomably expected and expended at at such places. Neither will it (I thinke) much displease you to heare, how the gentlemans ancestour, of whom master Eliot bought it, came by the same.
Iohn Champernowne, sonne and heire apparent to Sir Philip of Deuon, in H. the 8. time, followed the Court, and through his pleasant conceits, of which much might be spoken, wan some good grace with the King. Now when the golden showre of the dissolued Abbey lands, rayned welnere into euery gapers mouth, some 2. or 3. gentlemen, the Kings seruants, and master Champernownes acquaintance, waited at a doore where the King was to passe forth, with purpose to beg such a matter at his hands: Our gentleman became inquisitiue to know their suit: they made strange to impart it. This while, out comes the King: they kneele down, so doth master Champernowne: they preferre their petition; the King graunts it: they render humble thanks, and so doth M. Champernowne: afterwards, he requireth his share; they deny it; he appeales to the King: the King avoweth his equall meaning in the largesse; whereon, the ouertaken companions were fayne to allot him this Priory for his partage.
The parish Church answereth in bignesse, the large proportion of the parish, & the surplusage of the Priory; a great part of whose chauncell anno 1592. fel suddenly downe, vpon a Friday, very shortly after publike seruice was ended, which heauenly fauour, of so little respite, saued many persons liues, with whom immediately before, it had bene stuffed: and the deuout charges of the well disposed parishioners quickly repayred this ruine.
At the townes end, Cuddenbeak, an ancient house of the Bishops, from a well aduanced Promontory, which intituled it Beak, taketh a pleasant prospect of the riuer.
In this parish lyeth Bake, the mansion of the foreremembred M. Ro. Moyle, who maried Anne daughter of M. Lock, as he did mistris Vaughan, a Gentlewoman suppressing her rare learning, with a rarer modesty, & yet expressing the same in her vertuous life and Christian decease. Iohn father to Robert maried Agnes, daughter of Semtabyn : and his father [blank] daughter of Forteskew, to whom that dwelling first descended. He beareth for his Armes, G. a Moyle passant, Ar. a part of this parish confineth on the maine sea & offreth a faire landing place, called Seaton, howbeit, by a handsome fence forbidding any foes inuasion: it is ouerlooked, vpon the one side of the riuer (which there dischargeth his streame into the Ocean) by Keuerel, the ancient house of the Langdons, Gent, in former times, of faire reuennues, whose Armes are Ar. a Cheuron betweene 3. Beares heads erased Sa. The house perhaps, borowing his name of Cheuereul, a French word, signifying a wild Goat (as those high clifs affoord them a commodious inhabitance) and on the other, by Tregonnock, the dwelling of M. Tho. Smith, who in a quiet and honest retirednes, findeth that contentment, which many ambitious heads, far and wide doe vainely seeke for: hee maried Tremayn: his father Robert [blank] one of the daughters and heires to Killigrew: and his sonne Iohn, Priscilla the daughter of M. Geo. Wadham. His Armes, B. a Saultier Ar. betweene 4. Martlets O.
Leauing S, Germanes, and passing through Laurake parish, in which M. Peter Courtney hath an high seated house, called Wotton, you descend to Noddetor bridge, where the riuer Lyner first mingleth his fresh streame with the brinish waues: touching whose name and quality, one delighted in the solitary solace of his banks, & more affecting his owne recreation, then hunting after any others good liking, descanted thus:
WHo first gaue Lyners name,
Or from what cause it came,
Hard ’tis for certaine to expresse:
Experience yet directs,
By tryall of effects,
Thereat to ayme, and frame a gesse,
Is’t, that as she thee bear’th,
So thou doest line the earth,
With purseld streames of blew and white:
Or, as a line doth guide,
So thou doest leuell slide,
And throw’st into the sea thy mite?
Is’t, that with twisted line,
The Angler doth vntwine
The fishes life, by giuing breath.
Or, as the threshing lout,
Rusheth his Lyners out,
So Lyner on his course rusheth:
Or, as some puppy seat,
Lineth a mastiue great,
And getteth whelps of mongrell kinde:
Lyner, the sea so lines,
And streame with waue combines,
Begetting waters freshly brin’de.
WHen Sunne the earth least shadow spares,
And highest stalles in heauen his seat,
Then Lyners peeble bones he bares,
Who like a lambe, doth lowly bleat,
And faintly sliding euery rock,
Plucks from his foamy fleece a lock:
Before, a riuer, now a rill,
Before, a fence, now scarce a bound;
Children him ouer-leape at will,
Small beasts, his deepest bottome sound.
The heauens with brasse enarch his head,
And earth, of yron makes his bed,
But when the milder-mooded skie,
His face in mourning weedes doth wrap,
For absence of his clearest eie,
And drops teares in his Centers lap,
Lyner gynnes Lyon-like to roare,
And scornes old bankes should bound him more.
Then, second Sea, he rolles, and bear’s,
Rockes in his wombe, rickes on his backe.
Downe-borne bridges, vptorne wear’s,
Witnesse, and wayle, his force, their wracke.
Into mens houses fierce he breakes,
And on each stop, his rage he wreakes.
Shepheard adiew’s his swymming flocke,
The Hinde his whelmed haruest hope,
The strongest rampire fear’s his shocke,
Plaines scarce can serue to giue him scope,
Nor hils a barre; whereso he stray’th,
Ensue, losse, terrour, ruine, death.
In following the course of Lyner, you fall downe by Master Bonds auncient house of Earth, descended to his auncesters, from the daughter and heire of that name, to that of Master Wiuels, newly and fayrely builded, on which abbutteth Ma. Bullers Shillingham, not so much beholden to the owners inhabitancy as to natures pleasant and commodious seating.
Bond married with Fountaine, his father with Fits: his  Armes are Ar. on a Cheuron Sa. three Besants.
Next, wee take view of Trematon Castle, as it doth of the Hauen, and Countrie adioyning. It is, or rather was, one of the Dukes foremencioned foure houses: for now all the inner buildings are sunke into ruine: onely there remaine the Iuie-tapissed wals of the Keepe, and base Court, and a poore dwelling for the keeper of the Gayle, to which prisoners are brought vpon actions, from al places appurtenant to that large Lordship, if they cannot by suretiship discharge themselues, from the Bailiefes arrest.
I haue receiued information, from one auerring eyewitnes, that about fourscore yeres since, there was digged vp in the Parish Chauncell, a Leaden coffin, which being opened, shewed the proportion of a verie bigge man, but when the hands went about to ascertaine themselues, as well as their eyes, the body verified, that Omnis caro puluis. The partie farder told me, how, a writing graued in the Lead, expressed the same to bee the burial of a Duke, whose heire was married to the prince. But who it should bee, I cannot deuise, albeit my best pleasing coniecture, lighteth vpon Orgerius, because his daughter was married to Edgar.
At the last Cornish commotion, S, Richard Greynuile the elder did, with his Ladie and followers, put themselues into this Castle, & there for a while indured the Rebels siege, incamped in three places against it, who wanting great Ordinance, could haue wrought the besieged small scathe, had his friends, or enemies kept faith and promise: but some of those within, slipping by night ouer the wals, with their bodies after their hearts, and those without, mingling humble intreatings with rude menaces, he was hereby wonne, to issue forth at a posterne gate for parley. The while, a part of those rakehels, not knowing what honestie, and farre lesse, how much the word of a souldier imported, stepped betweene him and home, laid hold on his aged vnweyldie body, and threatned to leaue it liuelesse, if the inclosed did not leaue their resistance. So prosecuting their first treacherie against the prince, with suteable actions towards his subiects, they seized on the Castle, and exercised the vttermost of their barbarous crueltie (death excepted) on the surprised prisoners. The seely Gentlewomen, without regard of sexe or shame, were stripped from their apparrell to their very smockes, and some of their fingers broken, to plucke away their rings, and Sir Richard himselfe made an exchange from Trematon Castle, to that of Launceston, with the Gayle to boote.
This Castle vaunteth the Lord Warden his steward by Patent, Master Anthonie Rouse his Baylife by inheritance, and Richard Carew of Antony his keeper by lease. Of the ancient officers, one yet retayneth the name, though not the place, viz. M. Porter, to whose ancestor, when Vantor was L. thereof, one by a deed before date, gaue land, lying without the gate, by the title of Russell Ianitori de Trematon, which he still enioyeth. M. Porters Armes are Sa. Three Belles Ar. a Canton Erm.
It standeth in S. Stephens parish : the sheafe whereof, together with other faire reuennues, M. George Wadham enioying in the right of his wife, the daughter and heire to master Hechins, liberally bestoweth in continuall hospitalitie.
Master Hechins armes, are Sa. a crosse Fleurty,  quarterly B. and G. betweene 4. Lyons heades erased Sa. langued of the second. M. Wadhams, G. a Cheuron betweene three Roses Ar.
The same parish also compriseth Saltash, in old writings, called Villa de Esse; Esse his towne: and such Gentlemen there have been of ancient descent and faire reuennues. The word Salt, is added thereunto, because it standeth on the sea, & to distinguish it from other places of the same name. It is seated on the declyning of a steep hill, consisteth of three streets, which euery showre washeth cleane, compriseth betweene 80. and 100. households, vnderlyeth the gouernment of a Maior & his 10. brethren, and possesseth sundry large priuiledges ouer the whole hauen, to wit, an yeerely rent of boates and barges appertayning to the harbour, ancorage of strange shipping, crowning of dead persons, laying of arrests, and other Admirall rights, besides electing of Burgesses for the Parliaments, benefit of the passage, foreclosing all others, saue themselues, from dredging of Oysters, except betweene Candlemas and Easter, weekely markets, halfe-yeerely fayres, &c.
The towne is of late yeeres well encreased and adorned with buildings, & the townsmen addict themselues to the honest trade of marchandise, which endoweth them with a competent wealth. Some 7. or 8. ships belong thereunto.
It was not long since, that the neighbour-ministers successiuely bestowed their paines in preaching there, on the market daies, and the bordering gentlemen yeelded their presence. Sermon ended, the Preachers resorted to one ordinary, and the Gentlemen to another. This affoorded commendable effects to many works of loue and charity: but, with the retorted blame, from one to another, it is now wholly giuen ouer.
Heere, that great Carrack, which Sir Frauncis Drake surprised, in her returne from the East Indies, vnloded her frayght, and through a negligent fyring, met with an vnproper ending.
In this towne also dwelleth one Grisling, deafe from a long time, who, besides his merry conceites, of counterfeyting by signes (like the Romane Pantomimi) any kinde of occupation or exercise, hath a strange quality, to vnderstand what you say, by marking the mouing of your lips, especially if you speake deliberately, of any ordinary matter, so as (contrary to the rules of nature, and yet without the helpe of arte) he can see words as they passe forth of your mouth: and of this I haue caused him to giue often experiments.
And if Plyny now liued, I suppose he would affoord a roome, in his natural History, to a dogge of this town, who (as I haue learned by the faithfull report of master Thomas Parkins) vsed daily to fetch meate at his house there, and to carry the same vnto a blinde mastiffe, that lay in a brake without the towne: yea, (that more is) hee would vpon Sundayes conduct him thither to dynner, and, the meale ended, guide him back to his couch and couert againe.
I had almost forgotten to tell you, that there is a well in this towne, whose water will neuer boyle peason to a seasonable softnes.
At the foot of Saltash, there abbutteth vpon the sea, a rock, called Ashtorre, alias, Effes Torre, which is inuested with the iurisdiction of a mannour, and claymeth the suites of many Gentlemen, as his freeholders in Knights  seruice. Below this, there is a rock on eche side of the riuer, the one termed the Bull, the other the Hen; that on Deuon, this on Cornwall side. The Hen standeth a little distant from the shore, which giueth occasion to a Packe, how between it and the land, the Queenes greatest ship may saile; but it is meant of the farther distant.
Aboue Saltash, Cargreen, a fisher towne, sheweth it selfe, but can hardly muster a meane plight of dwellings or dwellers: so may their care be greene, because their wealth is withered.
Neere thereunto is Clifton, a neat seated house, appertayning to one of the Arundels, descended by a yonger brother, from those of Trerice; he maried Hill, his father, Cole.
Neither hath your eye scarcely quitted that, when it receiueth Halton, the pleasant and commodious dwelling of M. Anthony Rouse, both which benefits, he empleyeth to a kind & vninterrupted entertainment of such, as visit him vpon his not spare inuiting, or their owne occasions, who (without the selfe guilt of an vngratefull wrong) must witnes, that his frankenesse confirmeth their welcome, by whatsoeuer meanes, prouision, the fewell of hospitality, can in the best maner supply. His auncestours were Lords of little Modbury in Deuon, before the descent of times grew to a distinguishment, by the date of writings: which mannour, together with other lands, through a lineall succession, fell to be possessed by Raphe, Wil. Raphe, Iohn, Wil. Raphe, and Raphe, whose daughter and heire Elizabeth, bestowed the same, with her selfe, vpon the family of the Dimocks, Robert, second sonne to the last mentioned Raphe, saue one, had issue Will, who maried Alice, the daughter and heire of Tho. of Edmerston. Wil. had another Wil. and he had Iohn, and Iohn againe had Wil. This Wil. had Roger, who vpon Iulian, sister and coheire of Iohn Hill of Fleet, begat Iohn and Richard, father to the Gentleman now liuing, and he matched with Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Southcott, and one of the heires to her mother, the daughter of Barnehouse: besides which, he succeeded to his vncle Iohns inheritance, who deceased issuelesse: and being yet scarcely entred the limits of an healthfull olde age, seeth his pedigree extended into two farther descents. As for those outreaching mans memory, I haue seene them very sufficiently verified: his Armes are, O. an Eagle displayed B. pruning her wing, armed and langued G.
Vpon the top of a creek hereby, lyeth Crocadon, the mansion of M. Treuisa, a Gent, deriuing himselfe from the ancient and weldeseruing Chronicler of that name: he beareth G. a garbe O.
A mile aboue Halton, standeth Cuttayle, another house of M. Edgecumbs, so named (as wee may coniecture) of the French Courtaile, in English, short cut; because here, the salt water course is straightned, by the incroching banks. The buildings are ancient, large, strong and fayre, and appurtenanced with the necessaries of wood, water, fishing, parks, and mils, with the deuotion of (in times past) a rich furnished Chappell, and with the charity of almes-houses for certaine poore people, whom the owners vsed to releeue. It is reported, & credited thereabouts, how Sir Ric. Edgecumb the elder, was driuen to hide himself in those his thick woods, which ouerlook the riuer, what time being suspected of fauouring the Earle of Richmonds party, against King R. the 3. hee was hotely pursued, and narrowely searched for.  Which extremity taught him a sudden policy, to put a stone in his cap, & tumble the same into the water, while these rangers were fast at his heeles, who looking downe after the noyse, and seeing his cap swimming thereon, supposed that he had desperately drowned himselfe, gaue ouer their farther hunting, and left him liberty to shift away, and ship ouer into Brittaine: for a gratefull remembrance of which deliuery, hee afterwards builded in the place of his lurking, a Chappell, not yet vtterly decayed.
And thus hauing coasted the Cornish side of Plymmouth hauen, I hold it not amisse, to make report of such great voyages, as, by the memory of our Chronicles, or our owne view, from this harbour, tooke their beginning or ending.
Heere the neuer inough commended black Prince, attended by the Earles of Warwick, Suffolk, Sarisbury, and Oxford, the Lord Chandos and others, committed himselfe to the sea, with a nauy of 300. bottoms, for landing and maintayning his fathers right in France; and hither, after his glorious battell at Poictiers, he returned, with the captiue French King and his nobles.
Here the Lady Katherine, daughter to the King of Spaine, and wife to our Prince Arthur, tooke land, at her first arriuall in England.
Heere shipped himselfe, the Lord Darcy, sent by King Henry the 8. with a lusty crew of soldiers, for that Ferdinands iust assistance, against the Infidels: but vsed by him as a stale, for the vniust conquest of Christian Nauar.
Here, mostly, haue the troups of aduenturers, made their Rendez vous, for attempting newe discoueries or inhabitances: as, Tho. Stukeleigh for Florida, Sir Humfrey Gilbert for Newfound-land, Sir Rich. Greynuile for Virginea, Sir Martyn Frobisher, and Master Dauies, for the North-west passage, Sir Walter Raleigh for Guiana, &c.
Here, Count Mongomery made forth, with a more commendable meaning, then able meanes, or welspeeding effect, for relieving the hard besieged, and sore distressed Rochellers.
Here, Sir Fra. Drake first extended the point of that liquid line, wherewith (as an emulator of the Sunnes glorie) he encompassed the world.
Here, Master Candish began to second him, with a like heroicall spirit, and fortunate successe.
Here, Don Antonio, King of Portugall, the Earles of Cumberland, Essex, and Notingham, the Lord Warden of the Stanneries, Sir Iohn Norrice, Sir Iohn Hawkins (and who elsewhere, and not here ?) haue euer accustomed to cut sayle, in carrying defiance, againt the imaginarie new Monarch; and heere to cast anker, vpon their returne with spoyle and honour.
I omit the infinite swarme of single ships, and pettie fleetes, dayly heere manned out to the same effect.
And here, in eightie eight, the foreremembred Lord Admirall expected, and set forth, against that heauen-threatning Armado, which, to bee tainted with the shamefuller disgrace, and to blaze our renoume with the brighter lustre, termed itselfe, Inuincible. But I may not grow ouer-lasciuious in extolling.
King R. the 2. Anno 5. of his raigne, by Act of Parliament, restrained all passengers from shipping themselues in any other Ports then such as are there set down: of which Plymmouth was one.
From Plymmouth hauen, passing farther into the countrie, Hengsten downe presenteth his waste head and sides to our sight. This name it borroweth of Hengst, which in the Saxon signifieth a horse, & to such least daintie beasts it yeeldeth fittest pasture. The countrie people haue a by word, that,
Hengsten downe, well ywrought,
Is worth London towne, deare ybought.
Which grewe from the store of Tynne, in former times, there digged vp: but that gainfull plentie is now fallen to a scant-sauing scarcitie. Those workes afford store of the formentioned Cornish Diamonds, The neighbouring Inhabitants obserue also, that when the top of Hengsten, is capped with a cloud, the same boadeth a showre within short time after.
Roger Houeden reporteth, that about Anno 806. a fleete of Danes arriued in West-wales, with whome the Welsh ioyned in insurrection against king Egbright, but hee gloriously discomfited them, at Hengistendune, which I take to be this place (if at least West-wales may, by interpretation, passe for Cornwall) because the other prouince, of that time, is more commonly diuided into North and South.
This down is edged by Carybullock, sometimes a parke of the Dukes, but best brooking that name, now it hath lost his qualitie, through exchaunging Deere for Bullocke.
A little aside from hence, lyeth Landwhitton, now Lawhittan, which (as I haue elsewhere noted) was exempted vnto Edwulff Bishop of Creditune, from the Cornish Diocesse, to which yet, both for the temporaltie, and spiritualtie, the same oweth present subiection.
Mary, into what new names Pontium & Coilleng there also mentioned, are now metamorphized, I must say amplio.
Those buildings commonly knowne by the name of Launston, and written Lanceston, are by the Cornishmen, called Lesteeuan (Lez in Cornish signifieth broad, & those are scatteringly erected) and were anciently termed Lanstaphadon, by interpretation, S. Stephens Church: they consist of two boroughs, Downeuet and Newport: that (perhaps so called) of downe yeelding, as hauing a steep hill: this, of his newer erection. With them ioyne the parishes of S. Thomas & S. Stephens. The parish Church of Launceston itselfe, fetcheth his title of dedication, from Mary Magdalen, whose image is curiously hewed in a side of the wall, and the whole Church fayrely builded.
The towne was first founded (saith M. Hooker) by Eadulphus, brother to Alpsius, Duke of Deuon and Cornwall, and by his being girded with a wall, argueth in times past to haue caried some valew.
A newe increase of wealth, expresseth it selfe in the Inhabitants late repayred and enlarged buildings. They are gouerned by a Maior, and his scarlet-robde brethren, and reape benefit by their fayres and markets, and the County Assizes. The Statute of 32. Henry 8. which tooke order touching Sanctuaries, endowed this towne with the priuiledge of one, but I find it not turned to any vse.
To the town there is adioynant in site, but sequestred in iurisdiction, an ancient Castle, whose steepe rocky-footed Keepe, hath his top enuironed with a treble wal, and in regard thereof, men say, was called, Castle terrible. The base court compriseth a decayed Chappell, a  large hall, for holding the shire-Assizes, the Constables dwelling house, and the common Gayle.
About 60. yeares past, there were found certaine leather coynes in the Castle wall, whose faire stamp and strong substance, till then resisted the assault of time, as they would now of couetousnesse.
A little without the towne, were founded a Friery, and anno 1128. an Abbey, furthered by Reignald Earle of Cornwall.
About 2. miles distant from Launceston, Penheale mannour coasteth the high way, claiming the right of ancient demain, & sometimes appertaining to the Earles of Huntingdon, but purchased not long sithence by the late M. George Greinuile, who descended from a yonger brother of that family, and through his learning and wisdome, aduanced his credit to an especiall good regard in his Countrey. He maried Iulian, one of the 6. daughters and heires of William Viel: and Iane, the daughter to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. Richard his father tooke to wife, one of Kelwayes heires; and Degory his graundfather, one of the inheritors to Tregarthen: which helps, together with his owne good husbandry, haue endowed his sonne with an elder brothers liuelyhood: he beareth G. three Restes O.
In Lezant parish heereby, master Christopher Harris owneth a third part of Trecarell (the proiect: and onset of a sumptuous building) as coheire to the last Gentleman of that name, but admitteth no partner in the sweetly tempered mixture of bounty and thrift, grauity and pleasantnes, kindnesse and stoutnes; which grace all his actions. Hee beareth Sa. three Croissants within a border A.
Neither may wee forget Master Coringtons house of Newton, old to him by succession, yet new, in respect of his owne antiquitie: diuers his auncestors haue reaped the praise and reputation of a stayed carriage, howbeit one of them, through his rash, but merrie prankes,is to this day principally remembred, by the name of the mad Corington. I haue heard him deliuer an obseruation, that, in eight lineall descents, no one borne heire of his house euer succeeded to the land: hee beareth A, a Saultier Sa.
Trebigh, a priuiledged franchise, is by his Lord, Master William Wray, conuerted to a generall welcomer of his friends and neighbours. Hee married the daughter of Sir William Courtney: his father the coheire of Killigrew. Hee beareth Sa. a Fesse betweene three battelaxes A.
Poole, for his low and moyst seate, is not vnaptly named, houseth Sir Ionathan Trelawny, farre beneath his worth & calling: he married Sir Henry Killigrews daughter: his father, the coheire of Reskimer: his graundfather Lamellyns Inheritrix.
Poole standeth in Mynhinet parish, where Sir Ionathan hath a large priuiledged Mannour of the same name: the Benefice is giuen by Excester Colledge in Oxford, none but the fellowes admittable, wherethrough it hath successiuely beene graced, with three well borne, well learned, and welbeloued Incumbents; Doctor Tremayne, Master Billet, and Master Denis. Out of Sir Ionathans house is also descended Master Edward Trelawny, a Gentleman qualified with many good parts. Their armes are A. a Cheuron, S. betweene three Oke-leaues Vert.
Sundrie other Gent. rest beholden to this hundred, for their dwellings, who, in an enuiable mediocritie of fortune do happilie possesse themselues, and communicate their sufficient means to the seruice of their prince, the good of their neighbours, and the bettering of their owne estate: of which sort are,
M. Becket, who beareth S. a Fesse, betweene three Boares
heads coped, sixe Crosses crosselet Fichee. O.
M. Tregodecke, who beareth A. a Cheuron betweene three
M. Spurre, G. on a Cheuron O. a rose of the first, and
2. mullets pearced S.
M. Bligh, B. a Griffon segreant O. armed G. betweene 3.
M. Lower, B. a Cheuron engrayled O. betweene three Roses A.
M. Truisa G. a garb O.
M. Chiuerton A. a Castle S. standing on a hill V. Manaton,
A. on a Bend S. three mullets of the field,
and some others.
STratton Hundred extendeth the breadth of Cornewall, to the North, as that of East beginneth it on the South, and therefore it shall next succeede. His circuit is slender, but his fruitfulnesse great, and the Inhabitants industrie commendable, who reape a large benefit from their orchyards and gardens, but especially from their Garlick (the Countreymans Triacle) which they vent, not onely into Cornwall, but many other shires besides.
Stratton, the onely market towne of this Hundred, gaue the same his name, and (if I mistake not) taketh it from Strata, a street: other memorable matter to report thereof, I finde not any.
Vpon one side of the towne, lyeth master Chamonds house and place of Launcels, so called, for that it was sometimes a Cell, appertaining to the Abbot of Hartlond.
This Gentlemans father, late deceased, receiued at Gods hands, an extraordinary fauour, of long life.
Hee serued in the office of a iustice of peace, almost 60. yeeres.
He knew aboue 50. seuerall Iudges of the westerne circuit.
He was vncle, and great vncle to at least 300. wherein yet, his vncle and neighbour, master Greynuile, parson of Kilkhampton, did exceed him.
He married one of the daughters and heires of Treuenner, and by her saw fiue sonnes, and two daughters, the yongest out-stepping 40. yeeres.
Sir Iohn Chamond his father, a man learned in the common lawes, was knighted at the Sepulchre, and by dame Iane, widdowe to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, and daughter to Sir Thomas Greynuile, had an elder sonne called Thomas, whose two daughters, and heires, by Arscot, caried part of the lands, to Tripcony, and Treuanion, with whome they matched.
Master Chamond beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3. flowers de Luce: G.
In Launcels parish, also, standeth Norton, the house of M. Tristram Arscot, a Gent, who by his trauailing abroad in his yonger yeres, hath the better enabled himselfe, to discharge his calling at home. He tooke to wife Eulalia, the widdow of the wise, and vertuous M. Edmond Tremayne, and daughter of Sir Iohn Sentleger, whose stately house of Anery, in Deuon, he purchased, & thither hath lately remoued his residence; he beareth party per Cheuron B, et E, in chiefe two stagges heads cabased 0.
Vpon the North-sea, thereby, bordereth Stow, so singly called, Per eminentiam, as a place of great and good marke & scope, and the auncient dwelling of the Greynuiles famous family, from whence are issued diuers male branches, and whether the females haue brought in a verie populous kindred. Master Bernard Greinuile, sonne and heire to Sir Richard, is the present owner, and in a kind magnanimite, treadeth the honourable steps of his auncestours.
Tonacumb, late the house of Master Iohn Kempthorne, alias, Lea, who married Katherine, the daughter of Sir Peers Courtney, is, by his issuelesse decease, descended to his brothers sonne: he beareth A. three Pine-apple trees V.
Returning to the Westwards, wee meete with Bude, an open sandie Bay, in whose mouth riseth a little hill, by euerie sea-floud made an Iland, and thereon, a decayed Chappell: it spareth roade onely to such small shipping, as bring their tide with them, and leaueth them drie, when the ebbe hath carried away the Salt-water.
Vpon one side hereof, Master Arundel of Trerice possesseth a pleasant-seated house, and demaines, called Efford, alias Ebbingford, and that not vnproperly, because euerie low water, there affordeth passage to the other shore: but now it may take a new name, for his better plight: for this Gentleman hath, to his great charges, builded a Salt-water mill, athwart this Bay, whose causey serueth, as a verie conuenient bridge to saue the way-farers former trouble, let, and daunger. It is receiued by tradition, that his belsire, Sir Iohn Arundel, was forewarned, by a wot not what Calker. how he should bee slaine on the sands. For auoyding which encounter, hee alwaies shunned Efford, & dwelt at Trerice, another of his houses. But, as the prouerb sayth, Fata viam inuenient, and as experience teacheth mens curiosity, Fato viam sternit. It hapned, that what time the Earle of Oxford surprized S. Michaels mount by policy, and kept the same by strong hand, this Sir Iohn Arundel was Sherife of Cornwall, wherethrough, vpon duety of his office, and commaundement from the Prince, hee marched thither, with posse Comitatus, to besiege it, and there, in a Skirmish on the sands, which deuide the mount from the continent, he fulfilled the effect of the prophecy, with the losse of his life, and in the said mounts Chappell lieth buried.
So Cambises lighted on Ecbatana in Egypt, and Alexander Epirot, on Acheros in Italy, to bring them to their end. So Philip of Macedon, and Atis the sonne of Croesus, found a chariot in a swords hilt, and an Iron poynted weapon at the hunting of a Bore, to delude their preuentiue wearinesse. So Amilcar supped in Siracusa, & the Prince of Wales ware a Crown thorow Cheapside, in another sort and sense then they imagined, or desired. And so Pope Gerebert, and our king H. the 4, trauailed no farther, for meeting their fatal Hierusalem, then the one to a Chappell in Rome, the other to a chamber in Westminster.
S. Marie Wike standeth in a fruitfull soyle, skirted with a moore, course for pasture, and combrous for trauellers. Wic, by master Lambert, signifieth a towne: by master Camden, Stationem, vel Sinum, ubi exercitus agit. This village was the birth-place of Thomasine Bonauenture, I know not, whether by descent, or euent, so called:  for-whiles in her girlish age she kept sheepe on the foreremembred moore, it chanced, that a London merchant passing by, saw her, heeded her, liked her, begged her of her poore parents, and carried her to his home. In processe of time, her mistres was summoned by death to appeare in the other world, and her good thewes, no lesse then her seemely personage, so much contented her master, that he aduanced her from a seruant to a wife, and left her a wealthy widdow. Her second mariage befell with one Henry Gall: her third and last, with Sir John Perciual, Lord Maior of London, whom she also ouerliued. And to shew, that vertue as well bare a part in the desert, as fortune in the meanes of her preferment, she employed the whole residue of her life and last widdowhood, to works no lesse bountifull, then charitable: namely, repayring of high waies, building of bridges, endowing of maydens, relieuing of prisoners, feeding and apparelling the poor, &c. Amongst the rest, at this S. Mary Wike, she founded a Chauntery and free-schoole, together with faire lodgings, for the Schoolemasters, schollers, and officers, and added twenty pound of yeerely reuennue, for supporting the incident charges: wherein as the bent of her desire was holy, so God blessed the same with al wished successe: for diuers the best Gent. sonnes of Deuon and Cornwall were there vertuously trained vp, in both kinds of diuine and humane learning, vnder one Cholwel, an honest and religious teacher, which caused the neighbours so much the rather, and the more to rewe, that a petty smacke onely of Popery, opened a gap to the oppression of the whole, by the statute made in Edw. the 6. raigne, touching the suppression of Chaunteries.
Such strange accidents of extraordinary aduancements are verified by the ample testimonie of many histories, and, amongst the rest, we read in Machiauell (howbeit controuled by the often reproued Iouius) that Castruccio Caestracani climed from a baser birth, to a farre higher estate. For being begotten in Lucca, by vnknowne parents, and cast out, in his swadling clouts, to the wide world, he was taken vp by a widdowe, placed by her with a Clergy man her brother, giuen by him to a Gent, called Francesco Guinigi, and by Guinigi left tutor to his onely sonne. From which step, his courage and wisedome raysed him by degrees, to the soueraignty of Lucca, the Senatorship of Rome, the speciall fauour of the Emperour, and a neere hope (only by death preuented) of subduing Florence.
LEsnewith Hundred taketh his name of a parish therein (as Stratton doth of a towne) memorable for nothing else. It may he deriued, either from Les, which in Cornish signifieth broad, and newith, which is new, as a new breadth, because it enlargeth his limits farther into Cornwall on both sides, whereas Stratton is straightned on the one by Deuon: or from Les and gwith, which importeth broad Ashen trees, g, for Euphonias sake being turned into n.
The first place which heere offreth itselfe to sight, is Bottreaux Castle, seated on a bad harbour of the North sea, & suburbed with a poore market town, yet entitling the owner in times past, with the stile of a Baron, from whom, by match it descended to the L. Hungerford, &  resteth in the Earle of Huntingdon. The diuersified roomes of a prison, in the Castle, for both sexes, better preserued by the Inhabitants memorie, then descerneable by their owne endurance, shew the same, heeretofore to haue exercised some large iurisdiction.
Not farre from thence, Tintogel, more famous for his antiquite, then regardable for his present estate, abbutteth likewise on the sea; yet the ruines argue it, to haue beene once, no vnworthie dwelling for the Cornish princes. The cyment wherewith the stones were layd, resisteth the fretting furie of the weather, better then themselues. Halfe the buildings were raised on the continent, and the other halfe on an Iland, continued together (within mens remembrance) by a drawe-bridge, but now diuorced, by the downefalne steepe Cliffes, on the farther side, which, though it shut out the sea from his wonted recourse, hath yet more strengthened the late Iland: for, in passing thither, you must first descend with a dangerous declyning, and then make a worse ascent, by a path, as euerie where narrow, so in many places, through his sticklenesse occasioning, and through his steepnesse threatning, the ruine of your life, with the failing of your foore. At the top, two, or three terrifying steps, giue you entrance to the hill, which supplieth pasture for sheepe, and conyes: Vpon the same, I saw, a decayed Chappell, a faire spring of water, a Caue, reaching once, by my guides report; some farre way vnder ground, and (which you will perhaps suspect of vntruth) an Hermites graue, hewen out in the rocke, and seruing each bodies proportion for a buriall. But, if that in Wales carrie an equall veritie, the myracle will soone reape credite: for this is so sloped inwards at both ends, that any tall stature shal find roome by a little bending, as the short in the bottome by extending.
The fardest poynt of this hill, is called Black head, well knowne to the coasting Mariners. The high cliffs are by sea vnaccessible round abouts, sauing in one only place, towards the East, where they proffer an vneasie landing place for boats, which being fenced with a garretted wall, admitteth entrance thorow a gate, sometimes of yron, as the name yet continuing, expresseth, and is within presently commaunded by a hardly clymed hill. Vnder the Iland runnes a caue, thorow which you may rowe at ful sea, but not without a kinde of horrour, at the uncouthnesse of the place. M. Camden deliuereth vs these verses out of an olde Poet, touching Tintogel.
Est locus Abrini sinuoso littore ponti,
Rupe situs media, refluus quern circuit aestus.
Fulminat hic late, turrito vertice Castrum,
Nomine Tindagium, veteres dixere Corini.
Which import in English:
There is a place within the wind-
ing shore of Seuerne sea,
On mids of rock, about whose foote,
The tydes turne-keeping play:
A towry-topped Castle heere,
wide blazeth ouer all,
Which Corineus auncient broode,
Tindagel Castle call.
It is not layd vp amongst the least vaunts of this Castle, that our victorious Arthur was here begotten by the valiant Vter Pendragon, vpon the fayre Igerna, and  that without taynt of bastardy, sayth Merlyn, because her husband dyed some houres before.
Of later times, Tintogel hath kept long silence in our stories, vntill H. the 3. raigne, at which time (by Mat. Paris report) his brother, Earle Ri grew into obloquy for priuy receyuing there, & abbetting, his nephew Dauid, against the King. After which, being turned from a Palace [8 .R. 2.] to a prison, it restrained one Iohn Northamptons libertie, who for abusing the same, in his vnruly Maioralty of London, was condemned hither, as a perpetuall Penitenciary. A see of ancienty belonging to this Castle, was cancelled as vnnecessary, by the late L. Treasurer Burleigh.
One collecting the wonders of Cornwall, rimed touching this, as followeth:
Tintogel in his ruines vauntes,
Sometimes the seate of Kings,
And place which worthy Arthur bred,
Whose prayse the Breton sings,
A bridge these buildings ioynd, whom now
The fallen clifs diuorce,
Yet strength’ned so, the more it scornes,
Foes vayne attempting force.
There, caue aboue, entrie admits,
But thorowfare denies;
Where that beneath alloweth both,
In safe, but ghastly wise.
A Spring there wets his head, his foote
A gate of Iron gardes:
There measure due to eche ones length,
The Hermits graue awards.
IN the mids of the wilde moores of this Hundred, far  from any dwelling or riuer, there lyeth a great standing water, called Dosmery poole, about a mile or better in compasse, fed by no perceyued spring, neither hauing any auoydance, vntill (of late) certaine Tynners brought an Audit therefrom. The countrey people held many strange conceits of this poole; as, that it did ebbe & flow, that it had a whirle-poole in the midst thereof, and, that a fagot once throwne thereinto, was taken vp at Foy hauen, 6. miles distant. Wherefore, to try what truth rested in these reports, some Gent, dwelling not farre off, caused a boate and nets to be carried thither ouer land. Fish, they caught none, saue a fewe Eeles vpon hookes: the poole prooued no where past a fathome and halfe deepe, and for a great way very shallow. Touching the opinion of ebbing and flowing, it should seeme to bee grounded, partly vpon the increase, which the raine floods brought thereinto from the bordering hils (which perhaps gaue also the name; for Doz, is, come, and maur, great) and the decrease, occasioned by the next drowth, and partly, for that the windes doe driue the waues to and fro, vpon those sandie bankes: and thus the miracle of Dosmery poole deceased. Of this other wonder hee sayd,
Dosmery poole amid the moores,
On top stands of a hill,
More then a mile about, no streames
It empt, nor any fill.
Camelford, a market and Fayre (but not faire) towne fetcheth his deriuation from the riuer Camel, which runneth thorow it, and that, from the Cornish word Cam, in English, crooked, as Cam, from the often winding stream. The same is incorporated with a Maioralty, & nameth Burgesses to the Parliament, yet steppeth little before the  meanest sort of Boroughs, for store of Inhabitants, or the Inhabitants store.
Vpon the riuer of Camel, neere to Camelford [525.], was that last dismal battel strooken betweene the noble king Arthur, and his treacherous nephew Mordred, wherein the one took his death, and the other his deaths wound. For testimony whereof, the olde folke thereabouts will shew you a stone, bearing Arthurs name, though now depraued to Atry.
Master Camden letteth vs vnderstand, that this towne is sometimes termed Gaffelford: wherethrough we may marke it for the lists of a great fight betweene the Bretons & Deuonshire men [812.], which Houeden assigneth to haue bene darrayned at Gauelford, and perhaps the same, which the said Master Camden voucheth out of Marianus Scotus [820.], and describeth by these verses of an elder Poet:
—————— Naturam Cambala fontis,
Mutatam stupet esse sui, transcendit inundans
Sanguineus torrens ripas, & ducit in aequor
Corpora caesorum, plures natare videres,
Et petere auxilium, quos vndis vita reliquit.
The riuer Camel wonders, that
His fountaines nature showes
So strange a change, the bloody streame
His both side banks, and to the sea
The slaughtered bodies beares:
Full many swimme, and sue for ayde,
While waue their life outweares.
In our forefathers daies, when deuotion as much exceeded knowledge, as knowledge now commeth short of devotion, there were many bowssening places, for curing of mad men, and amongst the rest, one at Alternunne in this Hundred, called S. Nunnes poole, which Saints Altar (it may be) by pars pro toto, gaue name to the Church: and because the maner of this bowssening is not so vnpleasing to heare, as it was vneasie to feele, I wil (if you please) deliuer you the practise, as I receyued it from the beholders.
The water running from S. Nunnes well, fell into a square and close walled plot, which might bee filled at what depth they listed. Vpon this wall was the franticke person set to stand, his backe towards the poole, and from thence with a sudden blow in the brest, tumbled headlong into the pond: where a strong fellowe, provided for the nonce, tooke him, and tossed him vp and downe, alongst and athwart the water, vntill the patient, by forgoing his strength, had somewhat forgot his fury. Then was hee conueyed to the Church, and certaine Masses sung ouer him; vpon which handling, if his right wits returned, S. Nunne had the thanks: but if there appeared small amendment, he was bowssened againe, and againe, while there remayned in him any hope of life, for recouery.
It may be, this deuice tooke original from that master of Bedlem, who (the fable saith) vsed to cure his patients of that impatience, by keeping them bound in pooles, vp to the middle, and so more or lesse, after the fit of their fury.
THe name of Trig, in Cornish, signifieth an Inhabitant; howbeit, this Hundred cannot vaunt any ouer-large scope, or extraordinary plenty of dwellings: his chiefe towne is Bodmyn; in Cornish, Bos venna, commonly termed Bodman, which (by illusion, if not Etimology) a man might, not vnaptly, turne into Badham: for of all the townes in Cornwall, I holde none more healthfully seated, then Saltash, or more contagiously, then this. It consisteth wholly (in a maner) of one street, leading East and West, welneere the space of an Easterne mile, whose South side is hidden from the Sunne, by an high hill, so neerely coasting it in most places, as neither can light haue entrance to their staires, nor open ayre to their other roomes. Their back houses, of more necessary, then cleanly seruice, as kitchins, stables, &c. are clymed vp vnto by steps, and their filth by euery great showre, washed downe thorow their houses into the streetes.
The other side is also ouerlooked by a great hill, though somewhat farther distant: and for a Corollarium, their Conduit water runneth thorow the Churchyard, the ordinary place of buriall, for towne and parish. It breedeth therefore little cause of maruaile, that euery generall infection is here first admitted, & last excluded: yet the many decayed houses, proue the towne to haue bene once very populous; and, in that respect, it may stil retaine the precedence, as supported by a weekly market, the greatest of Cornwall, the quarter Sessions for the East diuision, and halfe yeerely faires. The iurisdiction thereof is administred by a Maior and his brethren, and vpon warrant of their Charter, they claime authoritie, to take acknowledgment of statute bonds.
In former times, the Bishop of Cornwall (as I haue elsewhere related) held his See at S. Petroos, in this towne, vntill the Danish pirats, firing their Palace, [981.] forced them to remoue the same, with their residence, vnto S. Germans. They were succeeded by a Priory, and Friery; which later, serued a while as a house of correction, for the shire, but with greater charge, then benefit, or continuance.
For other accidents, I find, that Perkyn Warbecke, [11.H.7.] after his landing in the West parts of Cornwall, made this towne the Rendez vous of his assembling forces, for atchieuing his, alike deseruing, and speeding enterprise against King Henry the seuenth.
Hither, also, in the last commotion, flocked the Rebels, [3.Ed.6.] from all quarters of the shire, pitching their campe at the townes end; and here they imprisoned such Gentlemen, as they had plucked out of their holes, and houses, vntill the fortune of warre gaue verdit with the right of iustice, for their well deserued euill speeding.
Sir Anthony Kingston, then Prouost-marshall of the Kings armie, hath left his name more memorable, then commendable amongst the townsemen, for causing their Maior to erect a gallowes before his owne doore, vpon which, (after hauing feasted Sir Anthony) himselfe was hanged.
In like sort (say they) he trussed vp a millers man, thereby, for that he presented himselfe in the others stead, saying he could neuer do his master better seruice.
But mens tongues, readily inclined to the worst reports, haue left out a part of the truth, in this tale, that the rest might carrie the better grace. For Sir Anthony did nothing herein, as a Iudge by discretion, but as an officer by direction; and besides, hee gaue the Maior sufficient watchwordes of timely warning, & large space of respite (more then which, in regard of his owne perill, he could not afford) to shift for safety, if an vneschewable destiny, had not haltered him to that aduancement. As for the millers man, he equalled his master, in their common offence of rebellion, and therefore it deserued the praise of mercy, to spare one of the two, and not the blame of crueltie, to hang one for another.
I should perhaps haue forgotten the free schoole here, maintayned by her Maiesties liberalitie, were I not put in mind thereof through a fore-halfening of this rebellion, by an action of the schollers, which I will report from some of their owne mouthes. About a yeere before this sturre was raysed, the schollers, who accustomably diuide themselues, for better exploiting their pastimes, grew therethrough into two factions; the one whereof, they called the olde religion; the other, the new. This once begunne, was prosecuted amongst them in all exercises, and, now and then, handled with some egernesse and roughnes, each partie knowing, and still keeping the same companions, and Captaine. At last one of the boyes, conuerted the spill of an old candlesticke to a gunne, charged it with powder and a stone, and (through mischance, or vngraciousnesse) therewith killed a calfe: whereupon, the owner complayned, the master whipped, and the diuision ended.
By such tokens, sometimes wonderfull, sometimes ridiculous, doth God at his pleasure, foreshewe future accidents: as in the Planets, before the battell at Thrasimenus, betweene Hannibal and the Romanes, by the fighting together of the Sunne and Moone. In birds, what time Brute brought forth the remnant of his army at Philippi, against Caesar and Anthony, by the furious bickering betweene two Eagles. In men, against the destruction of Hierusalem, by the encountring of Chariots and armies in the ayre. And before Alexanders battel with Darius; first, by a casual skirmish of the camp-straglers, vnder two Captaines, borrowing the names of those Princes; and then by Alexanders voluntary setting those Captaines to a single combat. Yea (to bring these examples neerer home) the like hath hapned both before and sithence, amongst boyes in other places.
When Caesar was departed from Rome, to try the title of the worlds Empire with Pompey, the towns boyes (without any mans commaund) parted in twayne: the one side calling themselues Pompeyans, the other Caesarians; and then darrayning a kinde of battell (but without Armes) the Caesarians got the ouerhand.
A like prank vnder the like assumed names, and with like successe and boding, they plaied, when Octauius and Anthony were, with like meanes, to decide the like Soueraignty.
And to the same purpose, Procopius affirmeth, that the Samnite boyes, when they draue their cattel to feeding, after their vsual maner of pastime, chose out amongst themselues, two of the best actiuity and seemelinesse; the one, they named Bellisarius, Generall for Iustinian the Emperour in Italy, the other Vitiges king of the Gothes,  against whome hee warred. In the buckling of these counterfeite Commaunders, it fell out, that Vitiges had the worst, whome the aduerse party with a iesting and craking maner, hanged vp at the next tree, in earnest, but yet with no intent to kill him.
This while it happens, that a Woolfe is descryed: away runne the boyes: fast abides the imaginary Felon, and so fast, that for want of timely rescouse, the breath poasted out of his body, and left the same a liuelesse carkase. The which notifyed to the Samnites, quitted the striplings (or slipstrings) of their punishment, but encreased the dismay of the elder people.
A like accident befell sithence, hy testimony of the ceremonious Texera, as a presage of Lewes the prince of Condyes death, 1569. Foure daies before which, at Xaintes, the youth of all sorts, from 9. to 22. yeres age, assembled, and (of their owne accord) chose two Commaunders, one they entitled the Prince of Condy, the other Mounsieur, who then lay in the field against him. For three dayes space, they violently assaulted each other, with stones, clubs, and other weapons, vntill at last it grewe to Pistoles: by one of which, the imaginary Prince receiued a quelling wound in his head, about 10. a clock in the morning: the very howre (saith this Portugall confessour) that the Prince himselfe, by a like shot was slaughtered.
The same authour vouched a semblable chaunce, somewhat before the siege of Rochell 1572. where, some of the boyes banded themselues, as for the Maior and others for the King; who after 6. dayes skirmishing, at last made a composition, and departed: even as that siege endured sixe moneths, and finally brake vp in a peace.
So doth Mercurius Gallobelgicus giue vs to wit, that in the yeere 1594. a Turkish Beglerbey of Greece, either seeking by a fore-coniecture, to be ascertained himselfe, or desirous to nusle the yonger sort in martiall exployts, led out of Alba Regalis, about 600. Turkish boyes, aged betweene 11. and 14. yeeres, and seuered them into two troups, terming the one, The Christian, the other, The Turkish batalion. Those, he directed to call vpon Iesus, these, vpon Hala: both parts he enioyned to bicker coragiously, and egged them onward with the enticement of rewards. The token is giuen, the forces encounter, the fight is hote. In the end, the Turks betake themselues to their heeles, and Iesus party carryeth away the victory. But such occurrents do not alwayes either foregoe, or foresignifie; for sometimes they fall out idle, and sometimes not at all. Howbeit, Nicetaes Choniates taketh it very vnkindly, that God woud not spare some watchword out of his prescience, to the Constantinopolitanes, what time Baldwyn Earle of Flaunders and others, first assisted, and then conquered their Citie.
Touching Veall the Mercurialist, I haue spoken in my former booke.
The youthlyer sort of Bodmyn townsmen vse sometimes to sport themselues, by playing the box with strangers, whome they summon to Halgauer. The name signifieth the Goats moore, and such a place it is, lying a little without the towne, and very full of quauemires. When these mates meet with any rawe seruingman, or other young master, who may serue and deserue to make pastime, they cause him to be solemnely arrested,  for his appearance before the Maior of Halgauer, where he is charged with wearing one spurre, or going vntrussed, or wanting a girdle, or some such like felony: and after he hath beene arraygned and tryed, with all requisite circumstances, iudgement is giuen in formal termes, and executed in some one vngracious pranke or other, more to the skorne, then hurt of the party condemned.
Hence is sprung the prouerb, when we see one slouenly appareled, to say, He shall be presented in Halgauer Court.
But now and then, they extend this merriment with the largest, to the preiudice of ouer-credulous people, perswading them to fight with a Dragon lurking in Halgauer, or to see some strange matter there: which concludeth at least, with a trayning them into the mire.
Within short space after the great fame dispersed, touching the rare effects of Warwickshire wels, some idle enuious head raysed a brute, that there rested no lesse vertue (forsooth) for healing all diseases, in a plentifull spring, neere vnto Bodmyn, called Scarlets well: which report grew so farre, and so fast, that folke ranne flocking thither in huge numbers, from all quarters. But the neighbour Iustices, finding the abuse, and looking into, the consequence, forbad the resort, sequestred the spring, and suppressed the miracle. Howbeit, the water should seeme to be healthfull, if not helpfull: for it retaineth this extraordinary quality, that the same is waightier, then the ordinary of his kinde, and will continue the best part of a yeere, without alteration of sent or taste; onely you shall see it represent many colours, like the Raine-bowe, which (in my conceite) argueth a running thorow some minerall veine, and therewithall a possessing of some vertue.
Aside from this towne, towards the North sea, extendeth a fruitfull veine of land, comprizing certayne parishes, which serueth better then any other place in Cornwall for Winter feeding, and suitably enricheth the Farmours. Herethrough, sundry Gentlemen haue there planted their seates, as, in S. Kew, master Carnsew, at Bokelly: in S. Endelion, master Roscarrock, at his House of the same denomination: besides, master Penkeuel, Nichols, Barret, Flammock, Cauel, and diuers more.
Carnsew, rightly Carndeaw, purporteth in Cornish, a black rock: and such a one the heire owneth which gaue name to his ancient possessed mannour, as the mannour to his ancestours. His house Bokelly may be deriued from Both, in Cornish, a Goate and kelly which is lost: and the Goate he giueth for his Armes. This Gent. father married the daughter of Fits in Deuon and left behinde him three sonnes, Richard, Mathew and William, with two daughters: those, brought vp in learning and experience abroade: these, in vertue and modesty at home: the fruites whereof, they taste and expresse, in a no lesse praise-worthy, then rare-continuing concord, hauing (not through any constrayning necessitie, or constraintiue vowe) but on a voluntary choyce, made their elder brothers mansion a Colledge of single liuing, & kinde entertaining. Amongst whom, I may not omit the yongest brother, whose well qualified and sweete pleasing sufficiency draweth him out from this cloyster, to conuerse with and assist his friends, and to whose sounder iudgement, I owe the thankful acknowledgement of  many corrected slippings in these my notes. The armes of this family are thus blasoned, S. a Goat passant. A. attired and trippled 0.
Roscarrock, in Cornish, meaneth a flower, and a rock, in English. Roses are his armes, and the North rocky clifs, which bound his demaines, perhaps added the rest. The heire hath issue by the daughter of Treuanion. His father maried the sole Inheritrix to Pentire, whose dwelling, Pentuan, is seated on the South sea, so as he might make vse of either climate for his residence. The family is populous; but of them two brothers, Hugh, for his ciuill carriage, and kinde hospitality, and Nicholas for his industrious delight in matters of history and antiquity, doe merit a commending remembrance. They beare A. a Cheuron betweene 2. Roses, G. and a sea-tenche nayante proper.
The little parish called Temple, skirteth this hundred, on the waste side thereof: a place, exempted from the Bishops iurisdiction, as once appertayning to the Templers, but not so from disorder: for if common report communicate with truth, many a bad mariage bargaine is there yerely slubbred vp.
Hundred of West.
WIth Trig Hundred on the South side, confineth that of West, but taketh his name from the relation which it beareth to that of East: the circuit thereof is not so large, as fruitfull.
In entring the same, wee will first pitch at the Looes, two seuerall Corporations, distinguished by the addition of East and West, abutting vpon a nauigable creek, and ioyned by a faire bridge of many arches. They tooke that name from a fresh riuer, which there payeth his tribute to the sea: and the riuer (as I coniecture) from his low passage, betweene steepe coasting hils: for Loo, and lowe, after the Cornish pronunciation, doe little differ.
East-Loo voucheth lesse antiquity, as lately incorporated, but vanteth greater wealth, as more commodiously seated: yet the foundation of their houses is grounded on the sand, supporting (naythelesse) those poore buildings, with a sufficient stablenesse. Their profit chiefly accrueth from their weekely markets, and industrious fishing, with boats of a middle size, able to brooke, but not crosse the seas: howbeit, they are not altogether destitute of bigger shipping: amongst which, one hath successiuely retained the name of the George of Loo, euer since the first so called, did a great while sithence, in a furious fight, take 3. French men of warre.
The towne towards the sea, is fenced with a garretted wall, against any sudden attempt of the enemy.
West-Loo mustereth an endowment with the like meanes, but in a meaner degree, and hath of late yeeres somewhat releeued his former pouerty.
Almost directly ouer against the barred hauen of Loo, extendeth S. Georges Iland, about halfe a mile in compasse, and plentifully stored with Conies. When the season of the yere yeeldeth oportunity, a great abundance of sundry sea-fowle breed upon the strond, where they lay, & hatch their egges, without care of building any nests: at which time, repairing thither, you shall see your head shadowed with a cloud of old ones, through their diuersified cries, witnessing their general dislike of your disturbance,  and your feete pestered with a large number of yong ones, some formerly, some newly, and some not yet disclosed; at which time (through the leaue and kindnesse of Master May, the owner) you may make and take your choyce. This Gent. Armes, are G, a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes.
The middle market towne of this Hundred, is Liskerd. Les, in Cornish, is broad, and ker, is gone. Now, if I should say, that it is so called, because the widenesse of this Hundred, heere contracteth the traffike of the Inhabitants, you might well thinke I iested, neither dare I auow it in earnest. But whencesoever you deriue the name, hard it is, in regard of the antiquity, to deduce the towne and Castle from their first originall; and yet I will not ioyne hands with them who terme it Legio, as founded by the Romanes, vnlesse they can approue the same by a Romane faith.
Of later times, the Castle serued the Earle of Cornwall for one of his houses; but now, that later is worm-eaten out of date and vse. Coynages, Fayres, and markets, (as vitall spirits in a decayed bodie) keepe the inner partes of the towne aliue, while the ruyned skirtes accuse the iniurie of time, and the neglect of industrie.
S. Cleer parish, coasting Liskerd, brooketh his name by a more percing, then profitable ayre, which in those open wastes, scowreth away thrift, as well as sicknesse. Thither I rode, to take view of an antiquitie, called The other halfe stone; which I found to be thus: There are two moore stones, pitched in the ground, very neere together, the one of a more broade then thicke squarenesse, about 8. foote in height, resembling the ordinary spill of a Crosse, and somewhat curiously hewed, with diaper worke. The other commeth short of his fellowes length, by the better halfe, but, welneere, doubleth it in breadth, and thickenesse, and is likewise handsomely carued. They both are mortifed in the top, leauing a little edge at the one side, as to accommodate the placing of somewhat else thereupon. In this latter, are graued certaine letters, which I caused to be taken out, and haue here inserted, for abler capacities, then mine own, to interpret.
[image, approx d O n l
E R T : R O
3 a U I T
p R O a n
l m a
where ‘a’ is a Greek alpha character]
Why this should be termed, The other halfe stone, I cannot resolue with my selfe, and you much lesse. Howbeit, I haltingly ayme, it may proceede from one of these respects; either, because it is the halfe of a monument, whose other part resteth elsewhere: or, for that it meaneth, after the Dutch phrase and their owne measure, a stone and halfe. For, in Dutch, Ander halb, (another halfe) importeth, One and a halfe, as Sesqui alter doth in Latine. It should seeme to be a bound stone: for some of the neighbours obserued to mee, that the  same limiteth iust the halfe way, betweene Excester and the lands ende, and is distant full fiftie myles from either.
Not farre hence, in an open plaine, are to be seene certaine stones, somewhat squared, and fastened about a foote deepe in the ground, of which, some sixe or eight stand vpright in proportionable distance: they are termed, The hurlers. And alike strange obseruation, taketh place here, as at Stonehenge, to wit, that a redoubled numbring, neuer eueneth with the first. But far stranger is the country peoples report, that once they were men, and for their hurling vpon the Sabboth, so metamorphosed. The like whereof, I remember to haue read, touching some in Germany (as I take it) who for a semblable prophanation, with dauncing, through the Priests accursing, continued it on a whole yere together.
Almost adioyning hereunto, is a heap of rocks, which presse one of a lesse size, fashioned like a cheese, and therethrough termed Wringcheese.
I know not well, whether I may referre to the parish of S. Neot in this Hundred, that which Mat. West, reporteth of K. Alfred, namely, how comming into Cornwall on hunting, he turned aside, for doing his deuotion, into a Church, where S. Guerijr and S. Neot made their abode (quaere, whether he meane not their burials) or rather so resolue, because Asser so deliuers it, and there found his orisons seconded with a happy effect.
Next, I will relate you another of the Cornish natural wonders, viz. S. Kaynes well: but lest you make a wonder first at the Saint, before you take notice of the well, you must vnderstand, that this was not Kayne the man-queller, but one of a gentler spirit, and milder sex, to wit, a woman. He who caused the spring to be pictured, added this rime for an exposition:
In name, in shape, in quality,
This well is very quaint;
The name, to lot of Kayne befell,
No ouer-holy Saint.
The shape, 4. trees of diuers kinde,
Withy, Oke, Elme and Ash,
Make with their roots an arched roofe,
Whose floore this spring doth wash.
The quality, that man or wife,
Whose chance, or choice attaines,
First of this sacred streame to drinke,
Thereby the mastry gaines.
In this Hundred, the rubble of certaine mines, and ruines of a fining house, conuince Burchard Craneigh, the Duchmans vaine endeuour, in seeking of siluer owre: howbeit, hee afterwards lighted on a thriftier vayne, of practising phisike at London, where he grewe famous, by the name of Doctor Burcot.
Killigarth, being interpreted in English, signifieth, He hath lost his griping, or reaching: and by his present fortune, (in some sort) iustifieth that name: for the same hath lately forgone Sir William Beuill, whome it embraced as owner & Inhabitant, by his sudden death, and is passed into the possession of the faire Lady his widdow, by her husbands conueyance.
It yeeldeth a large viewe of the South coast, and was it selfe, in Sir Williams life time, much visited,  through his franke inuitings. The mention of this Knight, calleth to my rememberance, a sometimes vncouth seruaunt of his, whose monstrous conditions, partly resembled that Polyphemus, described by Homer and Virgil, and liuely imitated by Ariosto, in his Orco: or rather, that Egyptian Polyphagus, in whome (by Suetonius report) the Emperour Nero tooke such pleasure. This fellow was taken vp by Sir William, vnder a hedge, in the deepest of Winter, welneere starued with cold, and hunger: hee was of stature meane, of constitution leane, of face freckled, of composition, well proportioned, of diet, naturally, spare, and cleanely inough; yet, at his masters bidding, he would deuoure nettles, thistles, the pith of Artichokes, raw, and liuing birds, and fishies, with their scales, and feathers, burning coles and candles, and whatsoeuer else, howsoeuer vnsauorie, if it might be swallowed: neither this a little, but in such quantitie, as it often bred a second wonder, how his belly, should containe so much: yet could no man, at any time, discouer him doing of that, which necessitie of nature requireth. Moreouer, he would take a hot yron out of the fire, with his bare hand; neuer changed his apparell, but by constraint, and vsed to lie in strawe, with his head downe, and his heeles vpwards. Spare he was of speech, and, instead of halfe his words, vsed this terme Size, as I will Size him, for strike him, hee is a good Size, for man, &c. Ouer-sleeping, or some other accident, made him to lose a day, in his account of the weeke, so as he would not beleeue, but that Svnday was Saterday, Saterday Friday, &c. To Sir William he bare such faithfulnesse, that hee would follow his horse, like a spanyell, without regard of way or wearinesse, waite at his chamber doore, the night time, suffering none to come neere him, and performe whatsoeuer hee commanded, were it neuer so unlawfull, or dangerous. On a time, his master, expecting strangers, sent him, with a panier, to his cater at the sea side, to fetch fome fish. In his way, he passed by a riuer, whereinto the tide then flowed, and certaine fishermen were drawing their nets: which after Iohn Size had a while beheld, hee casts to haue a share amongst them, for his master. So into the water he leaps, and there, for the space of a flight shoot, wadeth and walloweth (for swimme hee could not) sometimes up, and sometimes downe, carrying his panier still before him, to his owne extreame hazard of drowning, and the beholders great pittying; vntill at last, all wet, and wearied, out he scrambleth, and home he hieth, with a bitter complaint to his master, of his ill fortune, that he could not catch some fish, as well as the rest, where so much was going. In this sort he continued for diuers yeeres, vntill (vpon I wot not what veake, or vnkindnesse) away he gets, and abroad he rogues: which remitter brought him the end, to his foredeferred, and not auoyded destiny: for as vnder a hedge hee was found pyning, so under a hedge he found his miserable death, through penury.
Sir Williams father maried the daughter of Militon: his graundfather, the daughter and heire of Bear, whose liuelyhood repayred what the elder brothers daughters had impaired. The Beuils Armes are A. a Bull passant G. armed and tripped O.
In the same parish where Killigarth is seated, Master Murth inheriteth a house and demaynes. Hee maried Treffry; his father, Tregose. One of their auncestours,  within the memorie of a next neighbour to the house, called Prake, (burdened with 110. yeeres age) entertained a British miller, as that people, for such idle occupations, proue more handie, then our owne. But this fellowes seruice befell commodious in the worst sense. For when, not long after his acceptance, warres grewe betweene vs & France, he stealeth ouer into his countrey, returneth priuily backe againe, with a French crew, surprizeth suddenly his master, and his ghests, at a Christmas supper, carrieth them speedily vnto Lantreghey, and forceth the Gent, to redeemme his enlargement, with the sale of a great part of his reuenewes.
A little to the Westwards from Killigarth, the poore harbour and village of Polpera coucheth betweene 2. steepe hils, where plenty of fish is vented to the fish driuers, whom we call Iowters.
The warmth of this Hundred, siding the South, hath enticed many Gent. here to make choyce of their dwellings, as M. Buller now Sherife at Tregarrick, sometimes the Wideslades inheritance, vntill the fathers rebellion forfeited it to the Prince; and the Princes largesse rewarded therewith his subiects.
Wideslades sonne led a walking life with his harpe, to Gentlemens houses, wherethrough, and by his other actiue qualities, he was entitled, Sir Tristram; neither wanted he (as some say) a bele Isound, the more aptly to resemble his patterne.
Master Buller married the daughter of one Williams, a Counsellour at lawe in Deuon: his father, a younger branch of the ancient stocke, planted in Somerset shire, tooke to wife the widdowe of Courtney, and daughter and heire to Trethurffe; by whose dower, and his owne indeuour, he purchased and left to his sonne, faire possessions, but not vnencumbred with titles, which draue this Gentleman to salue them all by new compositions with the pretenders: and for compassing the same, to get an extraordinary experience in husbandry. His ancestours bare S. on a playne Crosse A. quarter pierced 4. Eagles of the field.
At S. Winowe inhabiteth M. Thomas Lower, commendable through his double prouision, against the warres, as hauing both furnished himself with great ordinance, for priuate defence of the County, and thrust forth his sonnes to be trayned in martiall knowledge and exercises, for the publike seruice of the Countrey.
His wife was one of Reskimers daughters and heires: his mother, the daughter of Treffrey: his house descended to his auncestour, by match with Vpton. Hee beareth B. a Cheuron engrayled O. betweene three Roses A.
Laureast, is the inheritance of M. Iohn Harris, a Gent. employing his sound iudgement, and other praise-worthy parts, to the seruice of his Prince and country, & the good of his friends and himself. His wife was daughter and heire to Hart; his mother sister to M. Chr. Harris, which (by his vncles yet want of issue) intitleth him with a faire expectancy. Hee beareth S. 3. Croissants within a border A.
Treworgy is owed by M. Kendal, and endowed with a pleasant and profitable fishing and command of the riuer, which flitteth vnder his house. He maried with Buller: his mother was daughter to Moyle of Bake, and beareth A, a Cheuron betweene 3. Dolphins S.
Master Glyn of Glynfoord, manifesteth, by this compounded name, the antiqitie of his descent, and  the ordinary passage there, ouer Foy riuer. The store of Sammons which it affoordeth, caused his ancestours ta take the Sammon speares for their Armes: for hee beareth A, a Cheuron, betweene three Sammon speares S.
Sundry more Gentlemen this little Hundred possesseth and possessioneth, as Code, who beareth A. a Cheuron, G. betweene three Crowes. May, G. a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes. Achym, A. a Maunche Maltaile S. within a border of the first, charged with Cinquefoyles, as the second Grilles, &c. But want of information, and lothnes to waxe tedious, maketh mee fardle vp these, and omit the rest.
It is hemmed in one the West, by the East side of Foy hauen, at whose mouth standeth Hall, in Cornish, a moore, and (perhaps) such it was before better manurance reduced it to the present fruitfulnesse. The same descended to Sir Reignald Mohun, from his ancestours, by their match with the daughter and heire of Fits-Williams; and (amongst other commodities) is appurtenanced with a walk, which if I could as playnly shew you, as my selfe haue oftentimes delightingly seene it, you might, & would auow the same, to be a place of diuersified pleasings: I will therefore do my best, to trace you, a shaddow thereof, by which you shal (in part) giue a gesse at the substance.
It is cut out in the side of a steepe hill, whose foote the salt water washeth, euenly leuelled, to serue for bowling, floored with sand, for soaking vp the rayne, closed with two thorne hedges, and banked with sweete senting flowers: It wideneth to a sufficient breadth, for the march of fiue or sixe in front, and extendeth, to not much lesse, then halfe a London mile: neyther doth it lead wearisomely forthright, but yeeldeth varied, & yet, not ouer-busie turnings, as the grounds oportunity affoordeth; which aduantage encreaseth the prospect, and is conuerted on the foreside, into platformes, for the planting of Ordinance, and the walkers sitting; and on the back part, into Summer houses, for their more priuate retrait and recreation.
In passing along, your eyes shall be called away from guiding your feete, to descry by their fardest kenning, the vast Ocean, sparkled with ships, that continually this way trade, forth and backe, to most quarters of the world. Neerer home, they take view of all sized cocks, barges, and fisherboates, houering on the coast. Againe, contracting your sight to a narrower scope, it lighteth on the faire and commodious hauen, where the tyde daily presenteth his double seruice, of flowing and ebbing, to carry and recarry whatsoeuer the Inhabitants shall bee pleased to charge him withall, and his creekes (like a young wanton louer) folde about the land, with many embracing armes.
This walke is garded upon the one side, by Portruan; on the other, by Bodyneck, two fishing villages: behinde, the rising hill beareth off the colde Northern blasts: before, the towne of Foy subiecteth his whole length and breadth to your ouerlooking: and directly vnder you, ride the home and forraine shipping; both of these, in so neere a distance, that without troubling the passer, or borrowing Stentors voyce, you may from thence, not only call to, but confere with any in the sayd towne or Shipping.
Mounsieur la Noue noteth, that in the great hall of  iustice, at Paris, there is no roome left, for any more images of the French Kings: which some prophetically interpreted, to signifie a dissolution of that line, if not of the monarchy. But this halfening, the present flourishing estate of that kingdome, vtterly conuinceth of falshood. A farre truer foretoken, touching the Earle of Deuons progeny, I haue seen, at this place of Hall, to wit, a kind of Fagot, whose age and painting, approueth the credited tradition, that it was carefully preserued by those noble men: but whether vpon that prescience, or no, there mine author failes me. This fagot, being all one peece of wood, and that naturally growen, is wrapped about the middle part with a bond, and parted, at the ends, into foure sticks, one of which, is, againe subdiuided into other twayne. And in semblable maner the last Earles inheritance accrued vnto 4. Cornish Gent. Mohun, Trelawny, Arundell of Taluerne, and Trethurffe: and Trethurffes portion, Courtney of Ladocke, and Viuian, do enioy, as descended from his two daughters and heires.
Sir Reig. Mohun is widdower of two wiues; the one, daughter to Sir Henry Killigrew, the other, to Sergeant Heale: his father, Sir William, married, first, the daughter of Horsey, and one of the heires, by the common law, to Sir Iohn her late brother; and next, the widdowe of Trelawny, who, ouerliuing him, enioyeth this Hall, as part of her ioynture; a Lady, gracing her dignitie, with her vertue, and no lesse expressing, then professing religion. Reignald, father to Sir William, wedded the daughter of Sir William Treuanion. The armes of the Mohuns are O. a Crosse engrayled Sa.