The Survey of Cornwall The First Book Part 2 by Richard Carew
THE SVRVEY OF CORNWALL.
The first Booke Part 2.
Hundred de Penwith.
Will, de Campo Arnulphi ten. 7 feod. & di.
in Luduon trewedryn, Maien & Kelle-
Will. Basset ten. 1. feod in Tihidi & Trenalga.
Mich. de Bray ten. 2. partes vnius feod. in Bray
Alanas Bloighon ten 2. feod. in Tremall.
Haeres Marci de Walestbren ten. 2. partes feod. in
Episcop. Exon. ten dimid. feod. in Lauestli.
Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. 1. feod. in Gorten.
Comes Gloc. ten. 4. part. unius feod. in Drayn-
Idem. Comes ten. 1. feod. in Couerton.
Idem. Comes ten. 1. feod. in Binnerton.
Idem. Comes ten. 5. part. 1. feod. in Loigans.
Haeres Ties ten. dimid. feod. in Alwerton.
Marchio Dorset. ten. 4. feod. in Trenwel.
Hundred de Lysnewith.
Will, de Botriaux tenet in isto Hundred in Wale
breux. 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Polruman di. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Wolueston 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Tresciward 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Worthauale 1. feod.
Reginald de Ferrar in ead. Hund. 7. feod.
Will, de Witha & Iohan. de Crammon tenent in
Trewint & in Westdisart 1. feod.
Idem Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. 1 feod. in
Idem Will. ten. in Oterham 1. feod.
Idem Will, in Donneghny Crugplegh di. feod.
Simon Giffard ten. 1. feo. in Donneghny de la Bruer.
Henric. de la Pomerey ten. in Lesnewith & Treuyghan
Rogerus de Crammon ten. in Moteland 1. feod.
Omnia praedicta feod. sunt feod. Mortanne.
Haeres Iocei Dinan ten.in Ouer rescradeck. & nether
rescradeck di. feod.
Hundred de Stratton.
HErbertus de Pyn ten. in Middeland 3. feod.
Idem ten. in Bere 1. feod. in Deuon.
Idem ten. in Alwington in Deuon 2. feod.
Idem ten. Marwonchurch 1. feod.
Idem ten. in Pensenteinon, Trethewy & Westory 2.
Comes Gloc. ten. 2. magna feod. in Kilkham land.
Ranulphus de Albo Monasterio tenet in Stratton 1.
Thomas de Wamford ten. in Efford 1. feod.
Henric. de Killigreu ten. 1. feo. in Orchard mar-
Iohannes de Cobbeham in Lancels 1. feod. quod Abbas
& conuentus de Hartland tenent in pur. & perpet.
Idem ten. in Wiston & Serpeknol 1. feod.
Idem ten. in burgo paruo Ponte knol. & Sunondsham 1.
feod. quod Abbas & conu. praed. clam, tenere in
pura & perpet. elem.
Idem ten. 3. part. 1. feod. in Turlebere.
Idem ten. 1. feod. & 6. part. 1. feod. in Hilton simul
cum Ferewil in Deuon.
Rogerus de Carmmon ten. 1. feod. in Hormecot &
Rex ten. 1. feod. in Bostinne.
Idem ten. Lamaylwen 1. feod. quod Oliuerus de Cram-
Idem ten. in Nantoige 1. feod. di. feod.
Iohanna Lengleis ten. i. feod. in Wadfaste.
Guilielmus de Campo Arnulphi ten. 1. feod. m Pen-
Idem ten. 1. feod. & 2. partes 1. feod. in Wike.
Prior de Lanceston ten. 1/4 1. feod. in Borton.
Haluethus Maliuery ten, di. feo. milit. in Tamerton.
Omnia praedicta feod. sunt parua feod. prater. 2. feod.
in Kilkam lond.
Hundred de East.
IOhanna de Rame ten. 1. fe. magnum de Seniock.
Nicholaus Danne ten. 1. partem feod. dict. feod. de
Mortimer in Tregantle de Modeton.
Idem Nich. ten. 1. magnum feod. de Abbate de Ta-
Idem Nich. ten. 1. mag. feod. in Trecan & Trecurnel
& Churleton de praedict. Abbate.
Idem Wil. de Bodbrand ten. 2. parua feod. de Mor-
teynne in Penhangle de Trematon.
Idem Will. ten. 1. paru. feod. dict. feod. de Morteynn
in Karkeil de Trematon.
Rogerus de Tredenick ten. in Tredenick 5. part. 1.
parui feod. prout ibid.
Rogerus de Ferrar ten. 2. parua feod. dict. feod. de
Mortyn in Penpol de Tremerton.
Idem ten. 1. paru. feod. in Haston de Tremerton.
Idem ten. 1. paru. feod. in Westuenton de Tre-
Idem ten. di. paru. feod. dict. feod. de Mortyn in The-
lebridge in la rode.
Idem ten. 3. part, vnius paru. feod. in Croketon de
Idem Calistock 1. paru. feod. & est in manu regis.
Idem aqua de Tamar di. feod. in manu reg. de honore
Idem Rogerus de Inkepenne ten. 2. paru. feo. Mortynn
Galfrid. de Erth. ten. di. paru. feod. ibid.
Idem Galfrid. de Groue ten. 3. part, vnius di. feod.
paru. de Mortyn ibid.
Idem Nic. de Merton ten. 1. paru. feod. Mortyn in
Treualuare & in Trekinward.
Will. de Botriaux ten. di. paru. feod. de Mortyn in
Penhele de rege.
Thomas Lercedekne ten. 4. part. 1. feod. paru. in Treu-
ris de rege.
Baro de Stafford ten. di. feod. paru. dict. feod. de
Mortyn de rege in Kallilond.
Episcop. Exon. ten. 1. mag. feod. Gloce. de rege.
Ric. de Trenaga tenet ibid. paru. feod. de Willi.
Regin. de Beuil ten. ibid. paru. feod. in Tredawil de
Wil. de Botriaux.
Idem Prior de Minstre ten. 1. paru. feod. Mort. in
Idem Nic. Danne ten. 3. part. 1. feod. paru. dict. feod.
de Mor. in Legh.
Hundred de West.
CArdynan Penlyn ten. pro duobus feod. paru. dict.
feod. de Morteyn in custodia regis.
Ric. de Serifeaux ten. 3. paru. feod. de Mort. in
Laurethon, Kilgather & Lansalwys.
Will. de Bodrigan ten. paru. feod. in Trethim Bes-
Manerium de Liskerd est di. paru. feod. Mort. & est in
Tho. de Cruptus ten. 2. paru. feod. in Cruphs &
Matheus de Trethake ten. 2. par. feod. Mo. in Tre-
thake, Lamlewarn, Trelewarn & Denant.
Mathilda de Hewisch ten. di. part. feo. in Meuely.
Ioh. de Wellington & Reg. Querquius ten. 5. part. 1.
feod. in Fawyton.
Hundred de Trigger.
ROb. Thomy ten. di. feod. in Bliston dict. feod.
Idem Nico. de Bindon ten. in Penrosburdon di. feod.
Rob. de Cheyndut ten. in Bodannan 4. part. 1. feo.
Ioh. filius Wil. te. in Kinnarght 4. par. 1. feo. Mor.
Idem ten. in Tregradeck, 4. part. 1. feod. Mor.
Henricus Camel ten. in Belionnus, 1. feod. Mor.
Robert. de Brunn ten. in Delisonbol 1. feod. Mort.
Matheus & Agnes de Trehauk ten. in Trehome di.
Robertus Giffard te. in Lannomunnus di. fe. Mor.
Robertus de Helligan ten. ibi. 2. feo. dict. fe. Mort.
Iohannes de Tinten ten. in Tynten & in Trewinneck
1. feod. Mort.
Ioh. de Seneschal te. in Helland, 4. part. 1. fe. Mort.
Haeres de Walesbren ten. in Lamailwen 4. part. 1. feod.
Ric. de Rescarreck ten. in Rescarretunus 4. part. fe.
Dom. de Lancarsse ten. ib. 5. part. 1. feo. di. fe. Mort.
Dom. de Portguin ten. ib. di. feod. Mort.
Siluester de Tregamuran ten. in Tregonen 1. feod.
Iohannes Darundle ten. in Treawset, & in Trenbeith 1.
Episcop. Exon. ten. in Eglosel 1. feod. mag.
Ioh. Tracy & Hugo Peuerel tenent in Tremscord &
Hamatethy, 2. feod. Mort.
Ricard. de Serifeaux ten. in Kilkoid 2. feod, & di.
Iohannes de Guillez ten. in Trenderet. 1. feo. Mor.
Barth, de Cant. ten. ibid. di. feod. Mort.
Ioh. fil. Will. ten. in Haumal di. feod.
Alanus Blughon ten. in Polrodon Donnat 2. feo.
Hundred de Pider.
IOhannes de Vinfrauil ten. ratione Aliciae vxoris fuae,
1. mag. feod. in Laherne.
Ric. de Hiuoisch ten. ibid. mag. feod. in S. Idy.
Rosamunda de la forest ten. ibid. mag. feod. in Tre-
Bartholomeus de Bercle tenet dimid. mag. feod. in Tre-
Iohannes de Tregage tenet dimid. mag. feod. in Tre-
Episcop. Exon. te. 5. part. mag. feod. in Dinbegh.
Rad. de Berthei ten. ibid. 1. paru. feod.
Henric. Ties te. 4. part. mag. feod. in Trewarnayl.
Item Rex ten. 4. part. 1. mag. feod. in Trewarnayl.
Ela de sanct. Colano ten. ibid. di. paru. feo. Mort.
Ric. de sanct. Colano ten. ratione Isoldae vxo. eius
ibid. di. paru. feod. Mort.
Rob. Thomy ten. in Caruaton 4. part. 1. paru. feod.
Barth. de Berckle te. in Tremor, di. paru. feo.
Ioh. Darundle ten. di. paru, feod. in Treloy.
Iohannes Hamelyn te. di. paru. feod. in Trekinnen,
Rad. Darundle te. di. paru. feo. in Trekinnen.
Regin. de Botriaux ten. 5. part. paru. feod. in Cut- fordferle.
Hundred de Powder.
Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. in Tiwardraith 1.
feo. vnde Prior ten. 3. acr. & di. ibi. Idem
Will. ten. in Bodrigan Penarth & Cargois 3.
Idem Will. ten. in Gouely 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Prideas 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Lishiestick 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Treuerlynwater di. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Bodenda 4. part. 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten, in Treuerbindren 5. par. i. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Tronneck 5. part. 1. feod.
Idem Will. ten. in Tronalgerthan 4. part. 1. feod.
Episcop. Exon. ten. in Caniwerez 1. feod.
Idem Episcop. ten. in Trenel 1. feod.
Idem Episcop. ten. in Taluren 1. feod.
Idem ten. in Fentengullyn di. feod.
Idem ten. in Tremnel di. feod.
Idem ten. in Trelonck. di. feod.
Henr. de la Pomeray ten. 3. part. 1. feo. in Hellarna.
Ioh. de Riparys ten. in Mauntayn di. feod.
Idem ten. in Trethak 1. feod.
Steph. de Belloprato ten. in Treuewith & Trewithy di.
Serlo de Lauladro ten. ibid. & in S. Goriann & in paru.
Luntyan 1. feod. & di. paru.
Rad. de Killigreu ten. ibid. 1. feod. paru.
Will, de Bodrigan ten. in Tremodret & in la roche 3.
Serlo de Lauladro ten. in Alet 3. part. 1. feod.
Will. Stanley & Comes de Riuers ten. 1. feod. mili. Mo.
Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. in Eglosroset in Trelewith
Will. Baillisbury vaca. vxo. fuae ten.in Blanchelond
Henr. fil. Maugi de Killigreu ten. in Trewyn 3. part.
Ric. de Hiwisch ten. in Trenasanstel di. feod.
Idem ten. in Gloures 1. feod.
Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. in Argallez 1. feod. paru.
Idem ten. in Fountomon 3. part. 1. feod. paru.
Haeres Thomas de Prideas ten. in Boswyghergy 2. part.
Mat. de Trethake ten. in Tragameddon 2. feo. par.
Rex. ten. aquam de Fawe pro 2. feod. & 3. part, 1.feo.
Henricus de la Pomerey ten. 12. feod. in Tregony.
Hundred de Kerier.
WAlter. Wailisbury & Isolda vxor eius te. 3. feod. in Rescronges dicta feod. Mortan.
Iohannis de Riparys te. in Rosewike 1. feo. Mort.
Episcop. Exon. ten di. mag. feod. in Minstre.
Rogerus de Carminon ten. 20. part. 1. feo. Mort. extra
10. part. illius 20, in Wynnenton, Marthyn & Ta-
Thomas Durant ten. in Penzenguans, 1. fe. Mort.
Iohannes fil. Will. ten. di. feod. in Arworthel per Car-
tam Edwardi quondam Com. Cornub. dict. feod.
Euidentiae extractae de rubro libra
de Scaccario, 143.
RObertus de Cardinan 71. feod. milit.
Reginaldus de Valle torta 59. de honore de Tre-
Thomas de Middleton 10. de honore de Midd.
Will. de Botterill 12. milit.
Robertus fil. Walteri 11. milit. de feod. Ric. de Lusti
Robertus de Peuerel 9. milit. de feod. eiusdem.
Ric. fil. Ric. 1. feod. & 3. part, cum haere de
Rad. Bloyon 7.
Arehennaund. Flandrensis 7. milit.
Robertus de Tintagle 5. milit.
Henricus fil. Will. 4. milit.
Wil. de Albemarle 5. milit. cum relict, Robert. de
Radulphus de Treat. 1. milit.
Ric. Wallensis 2. milit.
Wil. de Bosfco Roardi 2. milit.
Iohannes de monte acuto.
Henricus de Pomeray.
Henricus de Herys 1.
Pharanus Warebras 1. milit.
Barth. fil. 1. milit.
Gilbertus Anglicus 1. milit.
Symon Pincerna 1.
Ric. filius Iuonis 1.
Ric. Buzon. 1.
Henricus fil. Com. 1.
Huardus de Bekelege 1.
Walterius de Dunstan vil. 1. milit.
Hastul de Sullinge 4. part.
Robertus de Mandeuil 1. milit.
Alicia de Valletorta 1. milit.
PEtrus fil. Ogeri 40. Cabulion per vnam Capam
de Gresenge in aduentum dict. Regis in Cornu-
Rogerus Cithared 5. pro portanda illa Capa dum Rex
fuerit in Cornubia.
Iohan. de Pencoit vnam acram in Lametyn prec. de 5.s.
fac. ibid, custodiam per 40. dies.
Rog. de Bodmel 1. acram pro sequela in Com.
Rob. Espiakelin duas acras & furuum in Lanceneton, vt
eat in exercitum cum rege stipendiis ipsius Regis.
Extenta acrarum Cornub. facta coram Salom. de
Ross. & Sociis suis Iustic. itinerant, apud Laun-
ceston a die Paschae in 3.septimanas anno Reg.
Hundred de Penwith.
Decunar. de Tihidi. 70. Lanistly 28. Acr.
Redwory 14. Acras. Alwarton. 64.
Couerton. 45. Trefruss. 3.
Treruffe. 1. Marchel. 23.
Dreyneck. 5. Trefundryn. 20.
Bennerton. 45. Maen. 15.
Gurlyn. 15. Bree. 8.
Loygans. 9. Kelyneck. 24.
Tenent de Tregony. 9. Warewil. 25.
Penuerthy. 8. Tredyne. 1.
Vthno. 8. Trewannard.
Prior Mich. 8. Kelision. 6.
Treynwal. 20. Tredeny. 3.
Sum. 532. Acr.
Hundred de Kerier
Talgollon. 6. Carmynow. 18.
Pensignans. 6. Wymanton. 12.
Kenel 1. di. Trebrabo. 24.
Arwothel. 9. S. Mawgan. 9.
Restrongas. 21. Helston. 30.
Penryn. 21. Methele. 15.
Treros. 6. Trenhale. 6.
Minster. 12. Godolghan 13. als. Epo. 9.
Trewotheck. 6. Pengirsick, 6.
Trenaweth. 9. Rogearon. 9.
Trelan. 9. Wenna. 9.
Rosewike. 30. Trelew. 9. als. 1. Ac. Exo.
Lysard. 12. Presprinick. 6.
Tredaneck. 6. Trelybey. 9.
Tucays. 6. Luceas 31. als. 31. Ac. Ex.
Sum. 397. Acr. & dimid.
Hundred de Pider.
Deci. de naushike pro. 6. Trewenneck. 3.
Kalestek. 4. Trewoleck. 9.
Elineas. 24. Bodwenek. 9.
Dygimbris. 39. Rialton parua. 57.
Treloy. 9. Trenowith. 3.
S. Ify. 14. Treworder Bilcon. 12.
Lanheyl Tinten. 18. Meddeschole. 9.
Methean. 2. S. Peran. 3.
Trewarnayl. 51. Eliquyn. 6.
Carantock. 18. Cargoule. 39.
Ryalton. 18. Porthe. 9.
Lanhernow. 18. Carnaton. 14.
Pawton. 120. Tregennow. 9.
Aldennow. 21. Tremblithe. 4.
Lantallen. 4. Gluuian. 3.
Tremore. 6. Withiel. 15.
Banhedrek. 9. Ryalton magna. 57.
Retergh. 9. Cotford felle. 15.
Trewynnian. 3. Berthey. 24.
Meyndy. 6. Cragantallen. 3.
Sum. 700. Acr.
Hundred de Powder.
Decuna de Tregaire. 93. Treworeck & Trew. 24.
Inde alloc. 20. Ac. pro. do. Tremodreth. 18.
Deuon. Treueruen & Poldu. 15.
Blanchelond. 11. Eglosros. 3.
Argallas. 6. Crogith & Caryheges. 9.
Trenoweth. 9. Treuanion. 6.
Kestel & Coran. 6. Lanhaddron. 4.
Trelueck. 1. Boderdel. 20.
Trelewith. 6. Brithion. 8.
Tewynton. 33. Lanestek. 6.
Tregony Pomeray. 32. Elerky. 42.
Tredaek. 20. Werneckbosueleck. 4.
Gouily. 9. Cargoul. 8.
Pennarth. 9. Tretherf. 3.
Trenyeck & Golours. 7. di. Pentewyn. 3.
Trethewy. 6. S. Goron. 6.
Boswiththe. 20. Beranel. 36.
Trenance priour. 12. Trenananstle. 8.
Killiuregh. 2. Tregarreck. 14.
Landegy. 9. Maresk 36. pro reg. al-
Tregamedon. 6. loc. 2.
Alet. 12. Bodrugan. 9.
Berthey Brune. 3. Treualgarthyn. 3.
Growith & Trewithgy. 30. Lauada. 1.
Treworeck. 9. Pridiaux. 12.
Tybest & Penkeuel. 42. Tywascreth. 36.
Treueruyn. 3. Pensentimow. 6.
Nantyan. 36. Kenewyn. 1.
Sum. 573. Acr. & dimid.
Hundred de Trigg.
Egloshayl. 7. di. Lannousun. 18.
Penpout. 21. Bendeuy. 36.
Namail. 3. Roscarreck Bighan. 3.
Hundr. de Trig. 9. Tregradeck. 16.
Trelindret. 1. di. Lancarff. 6.
Tinten. 12. Pentir. 1. di.
Trenesquit. 18. Trewornar. 18.
Peterow. 6. Penrosburdon. 12.
Boddannan. 27. Killigint. 18.
Deliodbol. 6. Tridiseck. 18.
Bliston. 33. Heligan. 9.
Canta. 1. di. Reskarrekam. 9.
Broneyr. 2. Linnoban. 66.
Rugog. 9. Bodymel. 12.
Delioner. 9. Trehaneck. 6.
Polroda. 15. Hellaund. 6.
Killigen. 9. Tamitethy. 12.
Portligwyn. 1. di. Lanowseynt. i8.
Sum. 473. & dimid.
Hundred de Lesnewith.
Hellesland. 57. Cydmonth. 7.
Treualga. 18. Powndstock. 9.
Treuilla. 3. Donneny. 18.
Cracampton. 12. Treseward. 7. di.
Dysard. 6. Bochym. 21.
Wolueston. 9. Boleny. 8.
Treglasta. 35. Ebsett. 21.
Mokelound. 8. S. Genys. 10.
Treuerueth. 9. Whalsborow. 8.
Wortheual. 29. Otterham. 12.
Lesnewith. 24. Tremayl. 6.
Sum. 337. & dimid.
Hundred de Stratton.
Decena de Middeland. Marwyn-church & extra.2.
Launceles. 20. Loghe. 2.
Thurlebere. 12. Corg. 1.
Weke. 15. Fanceston. 8.
Wadfast. 17. Pennalym. 17.
Wyldsworthy. 4. Efford. 21.
Tamerton. 8. Bere. 3.
Harnacot. 9. di. Hilton. 20.
Morton. 2. Forkeston & Brendon. 4.
Kilkampton & Allerton. Witston & S. Petnel. 2.
68. Boyton & Bradbridge. 9.
Stratton. 21. dimid.
Sum. 341. Acr. & dimid.
Hundred de East.
Penheal. 36. Landreyn. 3.
Item ibid. 1. Clemyslond. 50.
Tredawel. 13. Halton. 18.
Trelosk. 14. Newton. 16.
Tauestok. 27. Trematon. 80.
Modeton. 9. Lanrake. 100.
Cauilond. 44. Sheuiek. 100.
Launcelond. 50. Tregilla. 12.
Polisaund 6. Penquite. 11.
Trefrys. 18. Carnedon. 8.
Lawytton. 80. Rame. 20.
Haston. 7. Bennalua. 20.
Landilp & leghe. 14. Penhasgar. 26.
Killaton. 20. Thorleton. 5.
Treuaga. 13. Cranydon. 24.
Trenymel. 12. Buysworek. 10.
Penpol. 24. S. Germyn. 37.
Treuartha. 3. Hamet. 7.
Hundred de West.
Cardinan. 24. Treuellawan. 15.
Breuigon. 6. Lanrethow. 12.
Estdraynez. 6. S. Wynow. 4. dimid.
Tremethert. 24. Bocunek. 12.
Recradock. 9. Treuilias. 3.
Lutcot. 24. Trethu. 6.
Pendryn. 6. S. Wot. 3.
Killigath. 9. Perpol. 24.
Plenynt. 9. Losnewith. 6.
Manely. 12. Trethewy. 3.
Polscoth. 1. dimid. Penquite. 9.
Botylet. 9. Boccalawar. 6.
Killigoreck. 9. Tallan. 6.
Baurylen & Hamiteth. 3. Trethek. 6. dimid.
Fowyton. 30. Langonet. 6.
Treueruyn. 6. Rathwil. 1. dimid,
West Draynez. 6. Brothok. 3.
Laskerd. 18. Penfran. 9.
Crutour. 9. Colmettyn. 6.
Trelowya. 6. Kelly & Mighstow. 3.
Sum. tot. 5555. dimid. Acr.
Nomina Baron. & Militum ex Rotulis de feodis
Militum, vel de Scutagio Solutis Regi
Richardo primo : In libro rubeo
WAlterus Hay 20. M. per Agn. vxorem
Nicholaus filius Galfridi 10. M.
Willi. Boterell. 12. M.
Alanus Blundus 7. M.
Geruasius filius Willi. 5. M.
Willi. frater Comitis 4. M.
Willi. filius Ric. 5. M.
Rad. de Rupe 3. M.
Willi. Oliuer. 1. M.
Henricus de Tredeleberg. 1. M.
Richardus filius Iuo. dim. M.
Iohannes de Soleigny.
Stephanus Flandrensis. 7. M.
Alanus de Dunstauill. 1. M.
Rogerus Anglicus. 1. M.
Regium de Valletorta 51. M.
Secundum quod Lucas filius Bernardi Senescallus euis
mandauit per litteras Baron. de Scaccar. in Anno
sexto Regis Richardi.
Robertus de Cardin. 71. M.
Secundum quod Senescallus eiusdem mandauit Baron.
eodem anno 6. R. 1.
Galfridus de Lacell. qui habet med. feod. q. fuerunt
Richard, de Lucy in hoc Com. 9. M. sicut Ric. filius
Willi. Senescallus eius mandauit per breue, Anno
regni Regis Richardi octauo.
Anno 40. Henr. tertii.
lllustri viro, Domino Henrico, Dei gratia, Regi Angliae, Domino Hiberniae, Duct Nor. Aquitan. & Com. Andeg. vicecomes Cornubiae, salutem, cum omni reve- rentia & obsequio. Ad mandatum vestrum, nomina illorum qui ten. quindecem libratas terrae vel plus, & tenent per seruitium militare, & milites non sunt, excellentiae vestrae praesentibus transmitto, vide- licet.
THomas de Tracy, cuius terrae in Cornubia valent
40. libras & plus.
Rogerus de Mesy. 16. li.
Stephanus de Bellocampo. 15. li.
Henr. filius Henr. de la Pombre. 30. li.
Robertus de Carmeneu. 16. li.
Willi. filius Roberti. 15. li.
Marc. le Flamanc. 16. li.
Willi. Wise. 16. li.
Iordanus de Hacumb. 14. li.
Robertas de Draenas. I5. li.
Philippus de Valletorta. 40. li.
Richard. de Grenuile. 50. li.
Henricus de Dones. 15. li.
Nomina Militum, & aliorum hominum ad
Arma, Anno Regni Regis
Edw. filii Regis
IOhannes de Treiagu vicecomes.
Nomina militum de Com. Cornubiae, tam
infra libertates quam
WIlli. de Botriaux.
Reginaldus de Botriaux.
Rad. de Albo Monasterio,
Richard. de Campo Arnulphi.
Henricus de Campo Arnulphi.
THomas Lercedekne est in Vascoma in sericium
Iohannes de Alneto.
Iohannes de Tynten.
Willi. de Ferrers.
Reginaldus de Mohun.
Robertus filius Willi. impotens miles coronator Domini
Iohannes de Carmenou.
Otto de Bodrugan peregrinatus est ad San. Iacobum li-
centia Domini Regis.
Nomina hominum ad Arma In
IOhannes de Dynham.
Rad. de Bloyen.
Oliuerus de Carminou.
Henricus de Peng.
Rogerus de Reskymmer.
Iohannes de Lambron.
Iohannes le Scor. de Taluran.
Richardus de Cerefeaux iunior.
Iohannes de Pyn.
Rad. de Bello Prato, peregrinatus est cum Ottone de
Bodrugan, cum licentia regis pro se & duobus va-
Isti praenominati habent 40. libr. terrae & redditus
Alii multi Armigeri desunt, nomina eorum dilace-
rata, non possunt legi in originali.
EDwardus Dei gratia, Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae, & Dux Aquit.vicecomiti Cornub. salutem. Cum nuper tibi praeceperimus, quod omnes & singulos de balliua tua in- fra libertates & extra, tam illos qui viginti libratas terrae & redditus per annum habent, quam illos similiter qui plus habent, de quocunq; teneant sine delatione rogares, & speci- aliter requireres ex parte nostra, fermiterq, iniungentes eis- dem, quod essent ad nos Londini die dominica prox. post octa- vas Sci. Iohannis Bapt. proximo futuras, cum equis & Ar- mis, videlicet, quilibet eorum prout decuerit statum suum, parati transfretare cum corpore nostro, partes transmarinas, ad Dei nostri & ipsorum honorem, ut speramus, & pro sal- uatione & communi utilitate regni nostri, tibi praecipimus, firmiter iniungentes, quod mandato nostro praedicto diligenter & celeriter executo, nos de nominibus omnium illorum de balliua tua quos sit rogaueris ad dictam diem dominie. dis- tincte & aperte, sub sigillo tuo certiores reddere non omittas: Remittens nobis tunc hoc breue. Teste meipso apud Portes- mouth, 24. die Maii, Anno regni nostri vicesimo quinto.
Nomina eorum qui habent viginti libratas
terrae, seu redditus vel amplius,
in Com. Cornubiae.
DOminus Oliuerus de Denham.
Dominus Willi. de Boteraus Senior.
Dominus Willi. de Boteraus maior.
Dominus Willi. de Campo Arnulphi.
Dominus Thomas de Kan.
Dominus Stepha. de Bello Prato.
Dominus Rogerus de Carminou.
Dominus Thomas de Pridias.
Dominus Hugo Peuerell.
Dominus Iohannes de Lambron.
Dominus Rad. Bloyhon.
Dominus Iohannes filius Willi.
Dominus Osbertus le Sor.
Dominus Robertus Gifford.
Dominus Richardus de Huwyse.
Dominus Reg. de Beuill.
Dominus Richardus de Reskymer,
Dominus Henricus de la Pomerey.
Dominus Petrus de Fysac.
Dominus Roulandus de Quoykyn.
Dominus Richardus de Greneuyle.
Dominus Walterus de Cornubia.
Dominus Reginaldus de Botreaus.
Thomas le Erchideakene.
Serlo de Lansladeron.
Walterus de Trem.
Steph. de Trewythen.
Odo de la Roche.
Willi. del Estre.
Rad. filius Oliueri de Arundell.
Willi. de Bret.
Mich. le Petit.
Iohannes de Kellerion.
Henricus de Kymyell.
Iohannes de Arundell.
Rogerus le Flemming.
Richardus le Ceariseus.
Iohannes de Tynton.
Rad. de Cheyndut.
Robertus le Brun.
Stephanus de Trewynt.
Robertus filius Willi.
Thomas de Waunford.
Rogerus de Meules.
Iohannes de Kylgat.
Richardus de Trenaga.
Philip. de San. Wynnoko,
Iohannes de Thurlebere.
NOW to weaue on our former web. The ancient maner of Cornish building, was to plant their houses lowe, to lay the stones with morter of lyme and sand, to make the walles thick, their windowes arched and little, and their lights inwards to the court, to set hearths in the midst of the roome, for chimneyes, which vented the smoake at a louer in the toppe, to couer their planchings with earth, to frame the roomes not to exceede two stories, and the roofes to rise in length aboue proportion, and to bee packed thick with timber, seeking therethrough onely strength and warmenesse; whereas now-adayes, they seat their dwellings high, build their walles thinne, lay them with earthen morter, raise them to three or foure stoaries, mould their lights large, and outward, and their roofes square and slight, coueting chiefly prospect and pleasure. As for Glasse and Plaister for priuate mens houses, they are of late yeeres introduction.
The poore Cotager contenteth himselfe with Cob for his wals, and Thatch for his couering: as for Brick and Lath walles, they can hardly brooke the Cornish weather: and the vse thereof being put in triall by some, was found so vnprofitable, as it is not continued by any.
It resteth, that after the Cornish Inhabitants reall priuate estate, I speake of their entercourse and traffike, and so step forth to their personal.
This entercourse is obtayned by high wayes and Bridges: for highwayes, the Romanes did not extend theirs so farre: but those layd out of later times, are in the Easterne part of Cornwall, vneasy, by reason either of their mire or stones, besides many vp-hils and downe-hils.  The Westerne are better trauaileable, as lesse subiect to these discommodities: generally, the statute 18. Eliz. for their amendement, is reasonably wel executed.
Bridges, the riuer Tamer hath Polston, Gresham, Horse, and New Bridge.
Lyner, that at Noddetor, Seton, and Loo, two bridges of the same name.
Foy riuer, Reprin, Lostwithiel, S. Nighton, or Niot. Fala riuer,
Grampord, Tregny. Loo riuer, Helston. On the North coast, vpon
Camel, Wade, Dilland & Helland. Vpon Deuon, Trywartheuy, &c. for
they are worth no curious enquiry.
For maintenance of traffike by buying and selling, there are weekely markets kept: In the Hundred of East, at Saltash, Launceston, and Milbrook. In west H. at Loo, and Liskerd. In Stratton H. at the Towne of the same name. In Lesnewith H. at Bottreaux Castle, and Camelford. In Powder H. at Foy, Lostwithiel, Grampord, Tregny, and Truro. In Trig H. at Bodmin. In Kerier Hun. at Helston, and Perin. And in Penwith Hundred, at Pensants, and at S. Ies. Of these, Bodmyn and Launceston are the greatest: this as placed in the broadest, that in the middle part of the Countie.
Fayres there are many, some of which here ensue.
March 13. at Bodmyn, Helston, S. Michaels mount.
April 24. at Loo.
25. at S. Columbs, S. Probus.
May 1. at Launceston, Perin.
Iune 11. at Minhinet,
24. at Launceston, Pelint, Probus, Colombs
Iuly, on S. Margets day, at S. Stephens.
S. Thomas transl, at Camelford.
On S. Iames day, at Golsinni, Saltash.
August 1. at S. Germaines.
On S. Laurence day, at S. Laurence.
On the Assumption of our Lady, at Lalant,
September, on S. Mathews day, at Liskerd,
on S. Bartholmews, at Lostwithiel,
on the Natiuitie of our Lady, at Kellington, S. Marie weeke,
October, on S. Dionise day, at Treuenna in Tintagel,
Nouember, on S. Katherins day, at S. Thomas.
On S. Leonards day, at Launceston and Tregny.
December, on S. Nicholas day, at Bodmyn.
And because traffike cannot bee exercised without waights and measures, a word or two of them.
Touching wayghts, the statute 12. H. 7. which made a generall ordinance therein, did specially exempt those appertayning to the cunnage, in Deuon and Cornwall, viz. that they should be priuiledged to continue their former vsage.
In measures the Shire varieth, not only from others, but also in it selfe: for they haue a land-measure, and a water-measure: the water-measure, of things sold at the ships side (as salt and peason) by the Inhabitants, is sixteene gallons the bushell; by strangers, betweene 18. and 24. The land-measure differeth in diuers places, from 18. to 24. gallons the bushell, being least in the East parts, and increasing to the Westwards, where they measure Oates by the hogshead.
The Iustices of peace haue oftentimes indeuoured to reduce this variance to a certaintie of double Winchester: but though they raysed the lower, they cannot abate the higher to this proportion: and yet from the want of this reformation, there ensue many inconueniences; for the Farmer that hath the greatest bushell at the market, maketh a price for the lesser to follow with little, (or at least) no rateable deduction. Besides, they sell at home to their neighbours, the  rest of the weeke, by the smaller meafure, as was payd in the market for the bigger.
There are also some Ingrossers, who buy Wheat of the husbandman, after 18. gallons the bushell, and deliuer it to the transporting Marchant, for the same summe, at 16.
So doth their Pearch exceed that of other Countries, which amounteth vnto 18. foote. And it is likewise obserued by strangers, that the Cornish miles are much longer then those about London, if at least the wearinesse of their bodies (after so painefull a iourney) blemish not the coniecture of their mindes. I can impute this generall enlargement of saleable things, to no cause sooner, then the Cornish mans want of vent and money, who therethrough, to equall others in quality of price, is driuen to exceed them in quantitie of measure.
Touching the personall estate of the Cornish Inhabitants, to begin with their name in generall, I learne by master Camden (who, as the Arch-antiquarie Iustus Lipsius testifieth of him, Britanniae nebulas claro ingenij sole illustrauit) that Ptolomey calleth them Damnonii, Strabo Ostidamnii, and Aretemidorus, Cossini.
Touching their particular denominations; where the Saxons haue not intruded their newer vsances, they partake in some sort with their kinsmen the Welsh: for as the Welshmen catalogize ap Rice, ap Griffin, ap Owen, ap Tuder, ap Lewellin, &c. vntill they end in the highest of the stock, whom their memorie can reach vnto: So the Westerne Cornish, by alike, but more compendious maner, intitle one another with his owne & his fathers christen name, and conclude with the place of his dwelling; as Iohn, the sonne of Thomas, dwelling at Pendaruis, is called Iohn Thomas Pendaruis. Rich. his yonger brother is named, Richard Thomas Pendaruis, &c. Through which meanes, diuers Gent. and others haue changed their names, by remoouing their dwellings, as Trengoue to Nance, Bonithon, to Carclew, two brethren of the Thomasses, the one to Carnsew, the other to Rescrowe, and many other.
Most of them begin with Tre, Pol, or Pen, which signifie a Towne, a Top, and a head: whence grew the common by-word.
By Tre, Pol, and Pen,
You shall know the Cornishmen.
Neither doe they want some signification, as Godolfin, alias Godolghan, a white Eagle: Chiwarton, the greene Castle on the hill: which Gentlemen giue such Armes; Reskimer, the great Dogges race, who beareth a Wolfe passant. Carnsew, alias, Carndew, a black rock: his house Bokelly, which soundeth the lost Goat: and a Goate he beareth for his coate: Carminow, a little Citie: Cosowarth, the high Groue, &c.
And as the Cornish names hold an affinity with the Welsh, so is their language deduced from the same source, and differeth onely in the dialect. But the Cornish is more easie to bee pronounced, and not so vnpleasing in sound, with throat letters, as the Welsh.
A friend of mine, one master Thomas Williams, discoursed once with mee, that the Cornish tongue was deriued from, or at least had some acquayntance with the Greeke: and besides diuers reasons which hee produced to proue the same, he vouched many wordes of one sence in both; as for example :
Greeke Cornish English
Teino Tedna Draw
Mamma Mamm Mother
Episcopos Escoppe Bishop
Klyo Klowo Heere
Didaskein Dathisky To teach
Kyon Kye Dogge
Kentron Kentron Spurre
Methyo Methow Drink
Scaphe Scapth Boat
Ronchos Ronche Snorting, &c.
This language is stored with sufficient plenty to expresse the conceits of a good wit, both in prose and rime: yet they can no more giue a Cornish word for Tye, then the Greekes for Ineptus, the French for Stand, the English for Emulus, or the Irish for Knaue.
Others they have not past two or three naturell, but are fayne to borrow of the English: mary, this want is releeuved with a flood of most bitter curses, and spitefull nick-names.
They place the adiective after the substantive, like the Grecians and Latines, as Father ours, March guiddn, horse white, &c.
1 2 3 4
In numbring they say, Wonnen, Deaw, Tre, Pidder,
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Pimp, Whey, Zith, Eath, Naw, Deag, Ednack, Dowthack,
13 14 15 16 17 18
Tarnack, Puzwarthack, Punthack, Wheytack, Zitack, Itack,
19 20 40 100. 1000. 10000.
Naunzack, Eygganz, Deaw Egganz, Cans, Mille, Molla.
Durdatha why, is Good morrow to you.
Trenestatha, Good night.
Fatlugan a why: How do you?
Da durdalathawhy: Wel I thanke you.
Betha why Iawanneck: Be you mery.
A sister, they call Whoore: a whoore, whorra: a priest, coggaz: a partridge, grigear: a Mare, cazock.
Relauta: by my troth.
Warrasay: by my fayth.
Molla tuenda laaz, ten thousand mischiefs in thy guts.
Mille vengeance warna thy, a thousand vengeances take thee.
Pedn ioll, deuils head:
Pedn brauze, great head:
pedn mowzack, stinking head:
and so in Infinitum.
Which termes, notwithstanding thogh they witnes their spite on the one side, yet retayne they as great a proofe of their deuotion on the other: for the Lords Prayer, the Apostles Creed, and the ten commaundements, haue beene used in Cornish beyond all remembrance. But the principall loue and knowledge of this language, liued in Doctor Kennall the Ciuilian, and with him lyeth buryed: for the English speach doth still encroche vpon it, and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Most of the Inhabitants can no word of Cornish; but very few are ignorant of the English: and yet some so affect their owne, as to a stranger they will not speake it: for if meeting them by chance, you inquire the way or any such matter, your answere shal be, Meea nauidua cowzasawzneck, I can speake no Saxonage. The English which they speake, is good and pure, as receyuing it from the best hands of their owne Gentry, and the Easterne Marchants: but they disgrace it, in part, with a broad and rude accent, and eclipsing (somewhat like the Somersetshire men) specially in pronouncing the names: as Thomas they call, Tummas & Tubby: Mathew, Mathaw: Nicholas, Nichlaaz: Reginald, Reinol: David, Daaui: Mary, Maari: Frauncis,  Frowncis: Iames, Iammez: Walter, Watty: Robert, Dobby: Rafe, Raw: Clemence, Clemmcowe, &c. holding herein a contrary course of extension to the Italians abridgement, who terme Frauncis, Cecco: Dominick, Beco : Lawrence, Renzo: as also to the Turks, who name Constantinople, Stampoli: Adrianople, Adrina: an Olifant, Fil: and the Sicilians, who curtayle Nicholas, to Cola.
Besides these, they haue taken vp certayne peculiar phrases, which require a speciall Dictionarie for their interpretation: of which kinde are,
Tis not ‘bezibd’ (fortuned) to me: Thou hast no ‘road’ (ayme), he will never ‘scrip’ (escape) it, he is nothing ‘pridy’ (handsome), ‘boobish’ (lubberly), ‘dule’ (comfort), ‘lidden’ (by-word), ‘shune’ (strange), ‘thew’ (threaten), ‘skew’ (shunne), ‘hoase’ (forbeare).
To reproue one of lazines, they will say, Doest thou make Idle a coate? that is, a coate for idlenes? In coniecturing what number may effect a thing, they adde, or same: as two, or some: ten, or some: twentie, or some: id est, thereabouts.
The other rude termes, wherewith Deuon and Cornish men are often twyted, may plead in their defence, not onely the prescription of antiquitie, but also the title of proprietie, and the benefit of significancy: for most of them take their source from the Saxon, our naturall language, and continue in vse amongst the Dutch: as Nimme commeth of Nimpt: Vang, of Fieng: the one importing a taking by ones selfe: the other by deliuery: both which we now confound. Ich to Ick, Cund to Cundigen, Lading, to Geladen: eruing goods, to Erbnuss. So Thwyting, is properly the cutting of little chippes from a stick. Pilme, the dust which riseth: Brusse, that which lyeth: which termes, as they expresse our meaning more directly, so they want but another Spencer, to make them passable.
The number of Cornish Inhabitants, though it cannot directly bee summed, may yet proportionably be gessed at by the musters taken of the able men (hereafter set downe) which wee will value at a third part of the whole, in ensuing Bodins rate.
But another question falleth sometimes into scanning, namely, whether Cornwall haue heretofore beene better stored with people, then it is now. Some holde the affirmatiue, and vouch to prooue it, the generall decay of Inland townes, where whole streets, besides particular houses, pay tribute to Comdowne Castle, as also the ruines yet resting in the wilde Moores, which testifie a former inhabitance. Others incline againe to the negatiue, alleadging the reasons heretofore touched, in the deare price of farmes or bargaines, by which mine assent is rather swayed: for I suppose that those waste grounds were inhabited, and manured, when the Saxons and Danes continual inuasions draue them to abandon the sea coasts, saue in such townes, as were able to muster, vpon any sodaine occasion, a sufficient number for their owne defence. The residue retired into the heart of the land, where, vpon a longer warning, they might sooner assemble from all sides, to make head, and the enemie in so far a march and retrait, should aduenture a greater hazard to bee distressed by the way. Which policy the French were driuen vnto, in Edward the thirds time, vpon the Englishmens  often roades, and the Spaniards make vse of at this day, in their Indies. Touching the decayed Inland townes, they are counteruayled with a surplusage of increase of those on the coast, and the desolate walks in the Mores, haue begotten a seuen-fold race of cotages neere the sea side. And thus much of Cornwall compared with it selfe: now, if you match it with other champion Shires, methinks, I may gather the same to be better inhabited, within a like circuit of miles, because the plenty of hils & valleys, afford a large quantity of ground thereunto. He that cannot conceiue this, may read Polibius in his 9 booke, where it is written, that for this reason, Lacedemon, being but fourty eight furlongs in compasse, contayneth more dwellings then Megalopolis, which extendeth vnto fiftie. My last proofe is grounded on this, that where the most part of the shire is seuered into inclosures, you cannot easily make choyce to stand in any one of them, aboue a quarter of a mile distance from some dwelling house.
After the names, language, and number thus perused, the Cornish peoples disposition & quality of mind and body, as well ancient as present, and then their degrees and recreations, succeed to be surueyed. The first Inhabitants, or Aborigenes, as the Paynims held, resembled those whom our stories affirme Brute to haue found here at his landing, huge of body, rough of liuing, & sauage of conditions, whome an old Poet desciphered in certaine verses, which I receiued of my particular kind friend, and generally well-deseruing Countreyman M. Camden, now Clarentieulx, which he since hath published.
Sed paucis famulosa domus, quibus vda ferarum
Terga dabant vestes, cruor haustus, pocula trunci:
Antra lares, dumeta thoros, caenacula rupes,
Praeda cibos, raptus venerem, spectacula caedes,
Imperium vires, animos furor, impetus arma,
Mortem pugna, sepulchra rubus, monstrisque gemebat
Monticolis tellus, sed eorum plurima tractus,
Pars erat Occidui, terror maiorque premebat,
Te furor extremum Zephiri Cornubia limen.
Which sound thus in English.
This was the Titans haunt, but with
No plenty did abound,
Whom beasts raw hides for clothing seru’d;
For drinke, the bleeding wound ;
Cups, hollow trees; their lodging, dennrs ;
Their beds, brakes; parlour, rocks;
Prey, for their food; rauine, for lust;
Their games, life-reauing knocks.
Their Empire, force; their courage, rage ;
A headlong brunt, their armes ;
Combate, their death; brambles, their graue.
The earth groan’d at the harmes
Of these mount-harbour’d monsters : but
The coast extending West,
Chiefe foyson had, and dire dismay,
And forest fury prest
Thee, Cornwall, that with utmost bound
Of Zephire art possest.
But afterwards, the Cornishmen, through the conuersation of forraine Marchants trading into their countrey for Tyn, by the testimony of Diodorus Siculus; grew to a larger measure of ciuility, then others their fellow, but more remoted Ilanders. From which ciuility, in the fruitful age of Canonization, they stepped a degree farder to holines, & helped to stuffe the church kalender with diuers Saints, either made or borne Cornish. Such was Keby son to Solomon prince of Cor. such Peran, who if my author
the Legend lye not) after that (like another Iohannes de temporibus) he had liued two hundred yeres with perfect health, tooke his last rest in a Cornish parish, which therethrough he endowed with his name. And such were Dubslane, Machecu, & Manslunum, who (I speake vpon Math. of Westm. credit) forsooke Ireland, thrust themselues to sea, in a Boat made of three Oxe skinnes and a halfe, with seuen daies victuall, and miraculously arriued in Cornwall.
Of Cornishmen, whose industrie in learned knowledges hath recommended their fame to their posterity, these few as yet are onely come to my notice:  Iohn of Cornwall, a student at Rome, and other places in Italy, wrote of the Incarnation of Christ, against Peter Lumbard, and dedicated the same to Pope Alexander the third, by whom he was highly fauoured.
 Simon Thurnay, after he had out-gone all the Oxford schollers in prophane learning (sayth the commendably paynefull Antiquarie, and my kind friend, Master Hooker) passed from thence to Paris, and there so profited in the study of diuinitie, that he attayned the chiefest place amongst the profound Sorbonists. But it was a windy knowledge that thus filled his sayles of glory, which grew at last so to tempest his wittes, as he held Aristotle superior to Moses and Christ, and yet but equall to himselfe. But this extreame surquedry, forfeyted his wittes, so as at last they could not serue him to know any letter in the booke, or to remember ought that he had done.
In King Henry the thirds time, liued Michael of Cornwall, admirable (as those dayes gaue) for his variety of Latine rimes, who maintayned the reputation of his Countrey, against Henry de Abrincis, the Kings Arch-Poet, but somewhat angerly, as it seemeth by these verses against the said de Abrincis:
Est tibi gamba capri, crus Passeris, & latus Apri,
Os leporis, catuli nasus, dens & gena muli,
Frons vetulae, tauri caput, & color vndique Mauri
His argumentis, quibus est argutia mentis,
Quod non a Monstro differs, satis hic tibi monstro.
 Walter of Exon, a Franciscane Frier of Carocus in Cornwall, at the request of Baldwin of Exon (de-) formed the Historie of Guy of Warwick.
Godfrey, surnamed of Cornwall, was about that time a cunning
Schoole-man, and Diuinitie Reader in Paris.
 William de Grenefild, from the Deanry of Chichester, stepped to the Chauncellorship of England, and Archbishoprick of York, under K. E. the first.
In Ed, the seconds daies, one Geffrey of Cornwall, is remembred for a writer.
Iohn Treuisa, a Cornishman, liued in R. the 2. raigne, & translated diuers books into English.
King Henry the fift not vnmindfull of the ciuiller Arts amongst his Martiall exployts, founded an Vniversitie at Caen in Normandie, & appointed Michael Tregury of Cornwall, for his rare gifts in learning, to bee Gouernour thereof.
In Henry the sixts time, Iohn Skewish compiled certaine abbridgements of Chronicles, and the warres of Troy.
King Henry the 7. promoted Iohn Arundel for his learning, to the sea of Excester.
Neither is Thomas Triuet to be forgotten, as a writer,  though he haue grauen his memory in a fairer letter, by building the costly bridge at Bridge-water, of which sometimes he was Lord.
Within our remembrance Cornwall hath bred or harboured Diuines, graced with the degree Doctorship, Moreman Tremayn, Nichols and Rolls. Bachelers, Medhope, Stowel, Moore, Denis. Of Preachers, the shire holdeth a number, plentifull in regard of other shires, though not competant to the full necessity of their owne, all commendably labouring in their vocation, though not endowed with an equal ability to discharge the same.
In the Ciuil law there liued of late Doctor Kennals, & now doth Doctor Carew, one of the ancientest masters of the Chauncerie; in which calling, after his yonger yeres spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himselfe. Bachelers there are Carnsew, Kete, & Denis. Barristers at the Common law, Chiuerton, Tremayne, Skawn, Michel, Moyle, Courtnay, Tub, Treffry, Sayer. These testifie the honesty of their carriage by the mediocrity of their estate: and (if they will giue me leaue to report a iest) do verify an old Gentlemans prophesie, who said that there stood a man at Polton bridge (the first entrance into Cornwall, as you passe towards Launceston, where the Assizes are holden) with a blacke bill in his hand, ready to knock downe all the great Lawyers, that should offer to plant themselues in that Countie. In earnest, whether it be occasioned through the countries pouerty, or by reason of the far distance thereof from the supremer Courts, or for that the multiplicity of petty ones neere at hand, appertaining to the Dutchy, Stannary, and Franchises, do enable the attourneyes and such like of small reading, to serue the peoples turne, and so curtail the better studied Counsellours profiting; once certayne it is, that few men of Law, haue either in our time, or in that of our forefathers, growne heere to any supereminent height of learning, liuely-hood or authoritie.
Of like fortune, but lesse number are the Phisicions; by how much the fewer, by so much the greater witnesses of the soyles healthfulnes. The most professors of that science in this Country, sauing only one Io. Williams, can better vouch practise for their warrant, then warrant for their practise. Amongst these, I reckon Rawe Clyes a black Smith by his occupation, and furnished with no more learning, then is suteable to such a calling, who yet hath ministred Phisike for many yeeres, with so often successe & general applause, that not only the home-bred multitude beleeueth mightily in him, but euen persons of the better calling, resort to him from remote parts of the realme, to make trial of his cunning, by the hazard of their liues; & sundry, either vpon iust cause, or to cloke their folly, report that they haue reaped their errands end at his hands. But farre more commendable is M. Atwel, sometimes Parson of Caluerly in Deuon, & now of S. Tue in Cornwall. For besides other parts of learning, with which he hath bene seasoned, he is not vnseene in the Theoricks of Phisike, & can out of them readily and probably discourse, touching the nature and accidents of all diseases. Besides, his iudgment in vrines commeth little behind the skilfullest in that profession. Mary his practise is somewhat strange and varying from all others: for though now and then he vse blood-letting, and doe ordinarily minister Manus Christi, and such like cordials,  of his owne compounding (a poynt fitting well with my humour, as enabling nature, who best knoweth how to worke) yet mostly for all diseases he prescribeth milk, and very often milk and apples, a course deepely subiect to the exception of the best esteemed Practitioners; and such notwithstanding, as whereby either the vertue of the medicine, or the fortune of the Phisicion, or the credulitie of the Patient, hath recouered sundry out of desperate and forlorne extremities.
This his reputation is of many yeeres standing, and maintayneth it selfe vnimpayred. But the same soareth to an higher pitch, by the helpe of another wing, and that is, his liberalitie. On the poore he bestoweth his paines & charges gratis: of the rich he taketh moderately, but leaues the one halfe behind, in gift amongst the houshould, if he be called abroad to visit any: The rest together with the profits of his benefice (rather charitably accepted then strictly exacted from his Parishioners) he powreth out with both hands in pios vsus, and will hardly suffer a penny to sleepe, but neuer to dwell with him.
Few Townes there are in Cornwall, or any other shire between that and London, which haue not in some large measure tasted of his bountie. None commeth in kindnes to see him, but departed gratifyed with somewhat, if his modestie will accept it. Briefly, his sound affection in religion, is so wayted on by honesty of life, and pleasantnesse of conuersation, that in Fabritius his voluntary pouertie, he is an equall partner of his honour, and possesseth a large interest in the loue of his neighbours. My loue to vertue, and not any particular beholdingnes, hath expressed this my testimony.
For persons imployed in state affaires, and there-through stept to preferment, that I may not outstride late remembrance, Sir Richard Edgecumb the elder, was Comptroller of the houshold, and priuie Counseller to King Henry the seuenth, being sent by him also in diuers Ambassades, in one of which to the Duke of Britaine he deceased.
King Henry the eight made like vse in this last kind, of
Iohn Tregonwel, who graduated a Doctor, and dubbed a Knight, did his
Prince good seruice, and left faire reuenewes to his posterity.
Sir Thomas Arundel, a younger brother of Lanhearn house, maried the sister to Queene Katherine Howard, & in Edward the 6. time was made a priuie Counseller: but cleauing to the Duke of Somerset, he lost his head with him.
Sir Henry Killigrew, after Ambassades and messages, and many other employments of peace and warre, in his Princes seruice, to the good of his Countrey, hath made choyce of a retyred estate, and reuerently regarded by all sorts, placeth his principall contentment in himselfe, which, to a life so well acted, can no way bee wanting.
Master George Carew, in his yonger yeeres gathered such fruit, as the Vniuersitie, the Innes of Court, and forrayne trauell could yeeld him: vpon his returne, he was first called to the Barre; then supplyed the place of Secretarie to the Lord Chauncellour Hatton; and after his decease, performed the like office to his two successours, by speciall recommendation from her Maiestie, who also gaue him the Prothonotaryship of the Chauncery, and in anno, 1598. sent him Ambassadour  to the King of Poland, and other Nothern Potentates’ where, through vnexpected accidents, he vnderwent extraordinary perils, but God freed him from them, & he performed his duty in acceptable maner, and at this present the common wealth vseth his seruice, as a Master of the Chauncery.
Cornwall, no doubt, hath affoorded a far larger proportion of well deseruing and employed members, to the good of their Prince and Countrey, albeit they fall not within the compasse of my knowledge, &. it is likely that the succeeding age wil much encrease the number, by meanes of her Highnes bounty, who to that end hath established seed-plots of free Schooles, with competent pentions out of her owne cofers, for the teachers at Saltash, Launceston, and Perin, three market townes of the County.
In descending to martiall men, Arthur claimeth the first mention, a Cornishman by birth, a King of Britaine by succession, & the second of the three Christian worthies by desert: whom (if you so please) that Captayne of Armes and Venery, Sir Tristram, shall accompany. From them, I must make a great leap (which conuinceth me an vnworthy associat of the antiquary Colledge) to Sir Iohn Naphant who (if I mistake not) was by country a Cornish man, though by inhabitance a Calisian, where H. 7. vsed his seruice in great trust; and Cardinal Wolsey owned him for his first master. More assured I am, that Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerne, vpon a long fight at sea, took prisoner one Duncane Camel, a hardy Scottish Pirate, and presented him to K. H. the 8: for our Chronicles report it. Towards the end of that Kings raine, Sir Wil. Godolphin also demeaned himselfe very valiantly in a charge which hee bare beyond the seas, as appeared by the skarres hee brought home, no lesse to the beautifying of his fame, then the disfiguring of his face: Whose Nephew, of the same name and dignity, hath so inriched himselfe with sufficiency for matters of policy, by his long trauell, & for martial affaires, by his present valiant cariage in Ireland, that it is better knowne, how far he outgoeth most others in both, then easily to be discerned for which he deserueth principall commendation himselfe. So did Sir Rich. Greinuile the elder enterlace his home Magistracy, with martiall employments abroad: whereof the K. testifyed his good liking by his liberality. Which domestical example, encouraged his sonne Roger the more hardily to hazard, & the more willingly to resign his life in the vnfortunate Mary Rose. A disposition & successe equally fatall to that house: for his sonne againe, the second Sir Ric. after his trauell and following the warres vnder the Emperour Maximilian, against the great Turke, for which his name is recorded by sundry forrain writers and his vndertaking to people Virginia and Ireland, made so glorious a conclusion in her Maiesties ship the Reuenge (of which he had charge, as Captaine, & of the whole fleet as Vice-admirall) that it seemed thereby, when he found none other to compare withall in his life, he striued through a vertuous enuy to exceed it in his death. A victorious losse for the realme; and of which the Spaniard may say with Pirrhus, that many such conquests would beget his vtter ouerthrow. Lastly, his son Iohn took hold of euery martiall occasion that was ministred him, vntill, in seruice against her Highnesse enemies, vnder the command of Sir Walter Ralegh, the Ocean became his bedde of honour. Neither may I without wrong passe ouer Captaine George Wray in silence, who (by a rare temperature of vertues) breathed courage into his soldiers, purchased loue amongst his acquaintance, and bred dismay in his enemies. Or captaine Hender, the absolutest man of war for precise obseruing martiall rules which his dayes afforded, besides his commendable sufficiencie of head and hand for inuention and execution. I will end with master William Lower, late captaine of Sir Frauncis Veres companie in Netherland, who hath opened the war schoole vnto a great many Cornish young gentlemen, that vnder his conduct sought to conforme themselues to his patterne, euerie way accomplished, with all the due parts of honour.
For Mechanical sciences the old Veale of Bodmyn might iustly expostulate with my silence, if I should not spare him a roome in his Suruey, while hee so well deserues it. This man hath beene so beholden to Mercuryes predominant strength in his natiuitie, that without a teacher hee is become very skilfull in welneere all manner of handy-crafts: a Carpenter, a Ioyner, a Milwright, a free-Mason, a Clockmaker, a Caruer, mettall founder, Architect, & quid non? yea a Surgeon, Phisicion, Alchumist, &c. So as that which Gorgias of Leontium vaunted of the liberall sciences, he may professe of the mechanicall, viz. to be ignorant in none.
The Cornish minds thus qualified, are the better enabled to expresse the same by the strong, actiue, &c healthfull constitution of their bodies; touching each whereof a little in particular, though we shall haue a fitter generall occasion to discourse therof, where we handle their passetimes. For strength, one Iohn Bray (well knowne to me as my tenant) carried vpon his backe, at one time, by the space welneere of a Butte length, sixe bushels of wheaten meale, reckoning fifteen gallons to the bushel, and the Miller a lubber of foure and twenty yeres age, vpon the whole.
Iohn Romane, a short clownish grub, would beare the whole carkase of an Oxe, and yet neuer tugged with him, like that so famous Milo, when hee was a Calfe.
For activity, one Kiltor, committed to Launceston Gayle for the last Cornish commotion, laying there in the castle-greene vpon his back, threw a stone of some pounds wayght, ouer that Towres top, which leadeth into the parke.
For health, 80. & 90. yeres age, is ordinary in euery place, and in most persons, accompanied with an able vse of the body & his sences. One Polzew, lately liuing, reached vnto 130, a kinsman of his, to 112. one Beauchamp to 106. yea Brawne the begger, a Cornishman by wandring (for I cannot say, by inhabitance) though Irish by birth, out-scoreth a hundred winters, by I wote not how many reuolutions. And in the parish where God hath seated my poore dwelling, I remember the decease of foure, within 14. weekes space, whose yeres added together, made vp the summe of 340.
Now to the degrees of their seuerall callings, wherein as I will poast ouer the Dukes to another place, so for Noblemen, I may deliuer in a word, that Cornwall at this present enioyeth the residence of none at al. The occasion whereof groweth, partly, because their issue female haue caried away the Inhabitance, together with the Inheritance, to Gentlemen of the Easterne parts: and partly, for that their issue male, little affecting  so remote a corner, liked better to transplant their possessions neerer to the heart of the Realme. Elder times were not so barraine: for besides the Lord Tregoyes in Wil. Conquerours dayes, Bottraux Castle vaunted his Baron of that title; both now descended to the Earles of Huntingdon: the last deceased of which, retayning the honour, departed with the land to my kinde friend master Iohn Hender, a Gentleman for his good parts, employed by her Maiestie amongst others, in the peace gouernment of the shire.
The Lord Bonuile his house was at Trelawne, alias, Trelawney, lately purchased of her Highnes, by Sir Ionathan Trelawny, a Knight well spoken, stayed in his cariage, and of thrifty prouidence.
The Lord Bray dwelt at [blank]: the Lord Brooke, at Kellington, where one of them hath his tombe: the Lord Marney at Colquite: and the Lord Denham at Cardenham.
Boconnock also appertained to the Earles of Deuon, and was by Frauncis Earle of Bedford, solde to Sir William Mohun, who deriued his pedigree from the ancient Barons of that name, and is also issued from one of those Earles of Deuons sisters and heyres. This together with other fayre possessions, now resteth in Sir Reignald Mohun his sonne, one that by his courteous,iust, and liberall course of life, maintayneth the reputation, and encreaseth the loue alwayes borne his ancestours.
The most Cornish Gentlemen can better vaunt of their pedigree, then their liuelyhood: for that, they deriue from great antiquitie, (and I make question, whether any shire in England, of but equall quantitie, can muster a like number of faire coate-Armours) whereas this declineth to the meane. One cause there is of both proceeding from the want of those supplies, which seruice, law and marchandise, afford the more inward Inhabitants of the Realme, as I haue elsewhere touched: yet this rule is not so generall, but that it admitteth his exceptions: for there are diuers, whose patrimonies extend to a large proportion; & for the residue, the cheapnes of their prouisions, and their casualties of Tyn, and fines (which 2. later ordinarily treble the certaine reuennue of their rents) enable them with their few scores, to equall the expences of those Easterne dwellers, who reckon by the hundreds: besides, they finde meanes by a suruey, to defray any extraordinarie charge of building, marriage, lawing, or such like. Yet I cannot denie, but that some, in gaping for dead mens shooes, find their improuident couetous humour punished with going barefoot.
This angle which so shutteth them in, hath wrought many interchangeable matches with eche others stock, and giuen beginning to the prouerbe, that all Cornish gentlemen are cousins; which endeth in an injurious consequence, that the king hath there no cousins. They keepe liberall, but not costly builded or furnished houses, giue kind entertainement to strangers, make euen at the yeeres end with the profits of their liuing, are reuerenced and beloued of their neighbours, liue void of factions amongst themselues (at leastwise such as breake out into anie daungerous excesse) and delight not in brauerie of apparrell: yet the women would be verie loth to come behind the fashion, in  newfanglednes of the maner, if not in costlynes of the matter, which may perhaps ouer-empty their husbands purses. They conuerse familiarly together, & often visit one another. A Gentleman and his wife will ride to make mery with his next neighbour; and after a day or twayne, those two couples goe to a third: in which progresse they encrease like snowballs, till through their burdensome waight they breake againe.
And heere I thought requisite, to lay downe the names of such Cornish gentlemen, as I find recorded to haue come in with the Conquerour.
Gentlemen descended from those, who came
in with the Conquerour, and now resi-
ding in Cornwall.
Basset. Karrow, alias, Carew.
Bluat, alias, Bluet.
Beauchamp. Mowne, alias, Mohun.
Chaumont, alias, Chamond.
Samtalbin, alias, Semtabyn.
Denis. Saulay, alias, Saule.
If the variety of Armes disclaime from any of these names, I will not stand vpon a stiffe iustification: and yet it is to bee noted, that diuers Cornish Gentlemen, borne yonger brothers, and aduanced by match, haue left their owne coats, & honoured those of their wiues with the first quarter of their shields. Which error their posteritie likewise ensued, as also, that before these later petty differences grew in vogue, the Armes of one stocke were greatly diuersified in the younger braunches.
I had also made a more paynful, then perfect collection of most of the Cornish Gentlemens names & Armes: But because the publishing thereof might perhaps goe accompanied with diuers wrongs, to my much reuerenced friends the Heralds, by thrusting my sickle into their haruest; to a great many my Countrymen, whom my want of information should be forced to passe ouer vnmentioned; and to the truth it selfe, where my report (relying vpon other mens credits) might through their errour intitle me the publisher (though not the author) of falshood: I rather thought fit altogether to omit it, and to note onely, that of diuers Gentlemen there haue bene in Cornwall, either their names are worne out, or their liuings transferred by the females, into other families: as likewise, sundry of those there now inhabiting, are lately denized Cornish, being generally drawne thither (besides other more priuate respects) through eyther the desire of change, which the disease of discontent affecteth, or the loue of quiet in so remote a corner, or the supposall of commodities there arising, and accruing, or the warrantize from ouerlooking & bearing, where little difference in quality tendeth to an  equality in estates.
From Gentility, we wil descend to ciuility, which is or should be in the townesmen. Those in Cornwall do no more by nature, then others elsewhere by choyce, conceiue themselves an estranged society from the vpland dwellers, and cary, I will not say a malice, but an emulation against them, as if one member in a body could continue his wel-being without a beholdingnes to the rest. Their chiefest trade consisteth in vttering their petty marchandises, & Artificers labours at the weekly markets. Very few among them make vse of that oportunity, which the scite vpon the sea proffereth vnto many, for building of shipping, and traffiking in grosse: yet some of the Easterne townes piddle that way, & some others giue themselues to fishing voyages, both which (when need requireth) furnish her Maiesties nauy with good store of very seruiceable Mariners.
There are (if they be not slaundered) that hunt after a more easie then commendable profit, with little hazard, and (I would I could not say) with lesse conscience. Anno 32. H. 8. an act of Parliament was made for repayring, amongst others, the Borough townes of Launceston, Liskerd, Lostwithiel, Bodmyn, Truro, and Helston in Cornwall, but with what fruit to their good, I cannot relate.
Within late yeeres memorie, the sea-coast Townes begin to proclaime their bettering in wealth, by costly encrease of buildings; but those of the Inland, for the most part, vouch their ruined houses, and abandoned streets, as too true an euidence, that they are admitted no partners in this amendment. If I mistake not the cause, I may with charitie inough wish them still the same fortune: for as is elsewhere touched, I conceyue their former large peopling, to haue bin an effect of the countries impouerishing, while the inuasion of forraine enemies draue the Sea-coast Inhabitants to seeke a more safe, then commodious abode in those Inland parts.
Strangers occasioned to trauaile through the shire, were wont, no lesse sharply then truly, to inueigh against the bad drinke, course lodging, and slacke attendance which they found in thosehouses that went for Innes: neither did their horses better entertainment, proue them any welcomer ghests then their masters: but in stead of remedy, they receyued in answere, that neither such an outcorner was frequented with many wayfarers, nor by hanging out signes, or forestalling at the Townes end, like the Italians, did they inuite any; and to make great prouision vpon small hope of vtterance, were to incurre a skorne-worthy losse, seeing Aspettare, & non venire (saith the same Italian) is one of the tre cose da morire.
Touching the Yeomanarie of Cornwall, I can say little, worth the observing, for any difference from that of other shires, and therefore I will step downe the next staire to husbandmen.
These in times not past the remembrance of some yet liuing, rubbed forth their estate in the poorest plight, their grounds lay all in common, or onely diuided by stitch-meale: little bread-corne: their drinke, water, or at best, but whey: for the richest Farmour in a parish brewed not aboue twyce a yeere, and then, God wotte what liquor: their meat, Whitsull, as they call it, namely, milke, sowre milke, cheese, curds,  butter, and such like as came from the cow and ewe, who were tyed by the one legge at pasture: their apparell, course in matter, ill shapen in maner: their legges and feet naked and bare, to which sundrie old folke had so accustomed their youth, that they could hardly abide to weare any shooes; complayning how it kept them ouer hote. Their horses shod onlie before, and for all furniture a pad and halter, on which the meaner countrie wenches of the westerne parts doe yet ride astride, as all other English folke vsed before R. the 2. wife brought in the side saddle fashion of straw.
Suteable hereunto was their dwelling, & to that their implements of houshold: walles of earth, low thatched roofes, few partitions, no planchings or glasse windows, and scarcely any chimnies, other then a hole in the wall to let out the smoke: their bed, straw and a blanket: as for sheets, so much linen cloth had not yet stepped ouer the narrow channell, betweene them and Brittaine. To conclude, a mazer and a panne or two, comprised all their substance: but now most of these fashions are vniuersally banished, and the Cornish husbandman conformeth himself with a better supplied ciuilitie to the Easterne patterne, which hath directed him a more thriuing forme of husbandrie; and our halcion dayes of peace enabled him to applie the lesson: so as, his fine once ouercome, he can maintaine himselfe & his familie in a competent decencie to their calling, and findeth monie to bestow weekely at the markets, for his prouisions of necessitie and pleasure: for his quarterlie rent serueth rather as a token of subiection to his Land-lord, then any grieuous exaction on his tenement.
One point of their former roughnesse, some of the Westerne people do yet still retaine, & therethrough in some measure, verifie that testimonie which Mathew Westm. giueth of them, together with the Welsh, their auncient countrimen: namely, how fostering a fresh memorie of their expulsion long agoe by the English, they second the same with a bitter repining at their fellowship: and this the worst sort expresse, in combining against, and working them all the shrewd turnes which with hope of impunitie they can deuise: howbeit, it shooteth not to a like extremitie in all places and persons, but rather by little and little, weareth out vnto a more milde and conuersable fashion. Amongst themselues they agree well, and companie louingly together: to their gentlemen they carrie a verie dutifull regard, as enured in their obeysance from their ancestors, and holding them as Roytelets, because they know no greater. Onelie it might be wished, that diuers amongst them had lesse spleene to attempt law-suits, for pettie supposed wrongs, or not so much subtiltie and stiffenesse to prosecute them: so should their purses be heauier, and their consciences lighter: a reporter must auerre no falshood, nor conceale any truth.
We must also spare a roome in this Suruey, to the poore, of whom few Shires can shew more, or owne fewer then Cornwall. Ireland prescribeth to be the nurserie, which sendeth ouer yeerely, yea and dayly whole Ship-loades of these crooked slips, and the dishabited townes afford them rooting: so vpon the matter, the whole County maketh a contribution, to pay those Lords their rent. Manie good Statutes haue beene enacted for redresse of these abuses, and vpon the first publishing, heedfully and diligently put in practise: but  after the nine dayes wonder expired, the law is forgotten, the care abandoned, and those vermine swarme againe in euerie corner: yet those peeuish charitable cannot be ignorant, that herethrough, to the high offence of God and good order, they maintaine idlenes, drunkennesse, theft, lecherie, blasphemie, Atheisme, and in a word, all impietie: for a worse kind of people then these vagabonds, the realme is not pestered withal: what they consume in a day, wil suffice to releeue an honest poore parishioner for a week, of whose work you may also make some vse: their staruing is not to be feared, for they may be prouided for at home, if they list: no almes therefore should be cast away upon them, to the robberie of the needy impotent; but money least of all: for in giuing him siluer, you do him wrong, by changing his vocation, while you metamorphize him from a begger to a buyer. Lacks he meat, drinke, or apparrell? (and nothing els he ought to be owner of) he must procure them of the worst by free gift, and not make choice, for a iust price, of the best. Well, though the rogue laugh you to scorne at night, the alewife hath reason the next day to pray for you.
Surely we finde by experience, that this so hainous an enormitie may be both easily and quickly reformed: for let the Constables execute upon the rogues that last most beneficiall Act of Parliament, with due seueritie for one weeke, and the terror thereof will free the parish for a month: vse it a month, and you are acquited for the whole yere. If the Constables persift in their remisnesse, let the Iustices lay the penalty vpon them, and they will no longer hoodwinke themselues at their neighbours faults. Let the neighbour be so pinched by the purse, but once or twise, and he will become a great deale the more sensible to season his charity with discretion for a long time after.
Vpon the first statute, there was a house of correction erected at Bodmin, to the great charge, but little benefit of the Countrey. Which experience lessoneth them to illude this later, by appoynting certaine cotagers houses in euery parish to serue, nomine tenus, for that purpose.
Lazer-houses, the deuotion of certaine Cornish Gentlemens ancesters erected at Minhinet, by Liskerd, S. Thomas by Launceston, and S. Laurence by Bodmyn: of which, this last is well endowed & gouerned. Concerning the other, I haue little to say, vnlesse I should eccho some of their complaints, that they are defrauded of their right. The much eating of fish, especially newly taken, and therein principally of the liuers, is reckoned a great breeder of those contagious humours, which turne into Leprosie: but whence soeuer the cause proceedeth, dayly euents minister often pittifull spectacles to the Cornishmens eyes, of people visited with this affliction; some being authours of their owne calamity by the forementioned diet, and some others succeeding therein to an haereditarius morbus of their ancestors: whom we will leaue to the poorest comfort in miserie, a helplesse pittie.
But let me lead you from these vnpleasing matters, to refresh yourselues with taking view of the Cornishmens recreations, which consist principally in feastes and pastimes.
Their feasts are commonly haruest dinners, Church-ales, and the solemnizing of their parish Churches dedication, which they terme their Saints feast.
The haruest dinners are held by euery wealthy man, or as wee terme it, euery good liuer, betweene Michaelmas and Candlemas, whereto he inuiteth his next neighbours and kinred, and though it beare onely the name of a dinner, yet the ghests take their supper also with them, and consume a great part of the night after in Christmas rule: neither doth the good cheere wholly expire (though it somewhat decrease) but with the end of the weeke.
For the Church-ale, two young men of the parish are yerely chosen by their last foregoers, to be Wardens, who deuiding the task, make collection among the parishioners, of whatsoeuer prouision it pleaseth them voluntarily to bestow. This they imploy in brewing, baking, & other acates, against Whitsontide; vpon which Holydayes, the neighbours meet at the Church-house, and there merily feed on their owne victuals, contributing some petty portion to the stock, which by many smalls, groweth to a meetly greatnes: for there is entertayned a kinde of emulation betweene these Wardens, who by his graciousnes in gathering, and good husbandry in expending, can best aduauce the Churches profit. Besides, the neighbour parishes, at those times louingly visit one another, and this way frankely spend their money together. The afternoones are consumed in such exercises, as olde and yong folke (hauing leysure) doe accustomably weare out the time withall.
When the feast is ended, the Wardens yeeld in their account to the Parishioners, and such money as exceedeth the disbursments, is layd vp in store, to defray any extraordinary charges arising in the parish, or imposed on them for the good of the Countrey, or the Princes seruice. Neither of which commonly gripe so much, but that somewhat stil remayneth to couer the purses bottome.
The Saints feast is kept vpon the dedication day, by euery housholder of the parish, within his owne dores, each entertayning such forrayne acquaintance, as will not fayle when their like turne cometh about, to requite him with the like kindnes.
Of late times, many Ministers haue by their ernest inuectiues, both condemned these Saints feasts as superstitious, and suppressed the Church-ales, as licencious: concerning which, let it breed none offence, for me to report a conference that I had not long since, with a neere friend, who (as I conceiue) looked hereinto with an indifferent and vnpreiudicating eye. I do reuerence (sayd he) the calling and iudgement of the Ministers, especially when most of them concurre in one opinion, and that the matter controuersed, holdeth some affinity with their profession. Howbeit, I doubt, least in their exclayming or declayming against Church-ales and Saints feasts, their ringleaders did onely regard the rinde, and not perce into the pith, and that the rest were chiefly swayed by their example: euen as the vulgar, rather stouped to the wayght of their authoritie, then became perswaded by the force of their reasons. And first touching Church-ales, these be mine assertions, if not my proofes: Of things induced by our forefathers, some were instituted to a good vse, and peruerted to a bad: againe, some were both naught in the inuention, and so continued in the practise. Now that Church-ales ought to bee sorted in the better ranke of these twaine, maybe gathered from their causes and  effects, which I thus rasse vp together: entertaining of Christian loue, conforming of mens behauiour to a ciuill conuersation, compounding of controuersies, appealing of quarrels, raising a store, which might be concerted partly to good and godly vses, as releeuing all sorts of poore people, repairing of Churches, building of bridges, amending of high wayes; and partly for the Princes seruice, by defraying at an instant, such rates and taxes as the magistrate imposeth for the Countries defence. Briefly, they tende to an instructing of the minde by amiable conference, and an enabling of the body by commendable exercises. But I fearing lest my friend would runne himselfe out of breath, in this volubilitie of praising, stept athwart him with these obiections: That hee must pardon my dissenting from his opinion, touching the goodnesse of the institution: for taken at best, it could not be martialled with the sacred matters, but rather with the ciuill, if not with the profane; that the very title of ale was somewhat nasty, and the thing it selfe had beene corrupted with such a multitude of abuses, to wit, idlenes, drunkennesse, lasciuiousnes, vaine disports of ministrelsie, dauncing, and disorderly night-watchings, that the best curing was to cut it cleane away. As for his fore-remembred good causes and effects, I sawe not, but that if the peoples mindes were guided by the true leuell of christian charity & duetie, such necessary and profitable contributions might stil be continued gratis, & the country eased of that charge to their purse and conscience, which ensueth this gourmandise. His reply was, that if this ordinance could not reach vnto that sanctity which dependeth on the first table, yet it succeeded the same in the next degree, as appertayning to the second. Mine exception against the title, he mockingly matched with their scrupulous precisenes, who (forsooth) would not say Christmas, nor Michaelmas, as other folk did; but Christs tide, and Michaels tide: who (quoth he) by like consequence must also bind themselues to say, Toms tide, Lams tide, and Candles tide. But if the name of ale relish so ill, whereas the licour itselfe is the English mans ancientest and wholesomest drinke, and serueth many for meate and cloth too; he was contented I should call it Church beere, or Church wine, or what else I listed: mary, for his part hee would loqui cum vulgo, though hee studied sentire cum sapientibus. Where I affirmed, that the people might by other meanes be trayned with an equall largesse to semblable workes of charitie, he suspected lest I did not enter into a through consideration of their nature and qualitie, which he had obserued to be this: that they would sooner depart with 12. pennyworth of ware, then sixepence in coyne, and this shilling they would willingly double, so they might share but some pittance thereof againe. Now in such indifferent matters, to serue their humours, for working them to a good purpose, could breed no maner of scandall. As for the argument of abuse, which I so largely dilated, that should rather conclude a reformation of the fault, then an abrogation of the fact.
For to prosecute your owne Metaphore (quoth hee) surely I holde him for a sory Surgeon, that cannot skill to salue a sore, but by taking away the lymme, and little better then the Phisicion, who, to helpe the disease, will reaue the life of his Patient from him. Abuses, doubtlesse, great and many  haue, by successe of time, crept hereinto, as into what other almost, diuine, or ciuill, doe they not? and yet in these publike meetings, they are so presented to euery mans sight, as shame somewhat restrayneth the excesse, and they may much the sooner bee both espied and redressed. If you thinke I goe about to defend Church-ales, with all their faults, you wrong your iudgement, & your iudgement wrongeth mee. I would rather (as a Burgesse of this ale-parliament) enact certaine lawes, by which such assemblies should be gouerned: namely, that the drinke should neither be too strong in taste, nor too often tasted: that the ghests should be enterlarded, after the Persian custome, by ages, yong and old, distinguished by degrees of the better and meaner: and seuered into sexes, the men from the women: that the meats should be sawced with pleasant, but honest talke: that their songs should be of their auncestours honourable actions: the principall time of the morning, I would haue hallowed to Gods seruice: the after-noones applied to manlike actiuities: and yet I would not altogether barre sober and open dauncing, vntill it were first thoroughly banished from mariages, Christmas reuels, and (our Countries patterne) the court: all which should be concluded, with a reasonable and seasonable portion of the night: and so (sayd hee) will I conclude this part of my speech, with adding onely one word more for my better iustification: that in defending feasts, I maintayne neither Paradox, nor conceite in nubibus, but a matter practised amongst vs from our eldest auncestours, with profitable and well pleasing fruit, and not onely by our nation, but, both in former ages, by the best and strictest disciplined common wealth of the Lacedemonians, who had their ordinary Sissitia, and now in our dayes, as well by the reformed, as Catholike Switzers, who place therein a principal Arcanum imperij.
Now touching the Saints feasts, if you taynt them with suspect: of superstition, because they are held vpon those Saints daies, by whose names the parish Churches are stiled, I will ward that blow with the shield of Arch-Saint Austines authoritie, who in his 8. booke of Gods Citie, and 27. Chap. in the like case, iustifieth a lesse allowable practise of the primitiue Christians. Summa, he closed his discourse with this protection, that hee appealed not from, but to the honourably respected censure of the reuerend Ministery, desiring his speach might receiue, not the allowance of a position, but the licence of a proposition: which my friends modest submission, I could not but embrace my selfe, and recommend it ouer to your fauourable acceptation.
My last note touching these feasts, tendeth to a commendation of the ghests, who (though rude in their other fashions) may for their discreete Judgement in precedence, and preseance, read a lesson to our ciuilest gentry. Amongst them, at such publike meetings, not wealth but age is most regarded: so as (saue in a verie notorious disproportion of estates) the younger rich reckoneth it a shame sooner then a grace, to step or sit before the elder honest, and rather expecteth his turne for the best roome, by succession, then intrudeth thereto by anticipation.
Pastimes to delight the minde, the Cornish men haue Guary miracles, and three mens songs: and for exercise of the body, Hunting, Hawking, Shooting, Wrastling,  Hurling, and such other games.
The Guary miracle, in English, a miracle-play, is a kinde of Enterlude, compiled in Cornish out of some scripture history, with that grossenes, which accompanied the Romanes vetus Comedia. For representing it, they raise an earthen Amphitheatre, in some open field, hauing the Diameter of his enclosed playne some 40. or 50. foot. The Country people flock from all sides, many miles off, to hear and see it: for they haue therein, deuils and deuices, to delight as well the eye as the eare: the players conne not their parts without booke, but are prompted by one called the Ordinary, who followeth at their back with the booke in his hand, and telleth them softly what they must pronounce aloud. Which maner once gaue occasion to a pleasant conceyted gentleman, of practising a mery pranke: for he vndertaking (perhaps of set purpose) an Actors roome, was accordingly lessoned (before-hand) by the Ordinary, that he must say after him. His turne came: quoth the Ordinary, Go forth man and shew thy selfe. The gentleman steps out vpon the stage, and like a bad Clarke in scripture matters, cleauing more to the letter then the sense, pronounced those words aloud. Oh (sayes the fellowe softly in his eare) you marre all the play. And with this his passion, the Actor makes the audience in like sort acquainted. Hereon the prompter falles to flat rayling & cursing in the bitterest termes he could deuise: which the Gentleman with a set gesture and countenance still soberly related, vntill the Ordinary, driuen at last into a madde rage, was faine to giue ouer all. Which trousse though it brake off the Enterlude, yet defrauded not the beholders, but dismissed them with a great deale more sport and laughter, then 20. such Guaries could haue affoorded.
They haue also Cornish three mens songs, cunningly contriued for the ditty, and pleasantly for the note.
Amongst bodily pastimes, shooting carrieth the preeminence; to which in mine yonger yeeres I caried such affection, as I induced Archery, perswading others to the like liking, by this ensuing Prosopopeia:
My deare friends, I come to complaine vpon you, but to your selues: to blame you, but for your good: to expostulate with you, but in the way of reconciliation. Alas, what my desert can justify your adandoning my fellowship, & hanging me thus vp, to be smoke-starued ouer your chimnies? I am no stranger vnto you, but by birth, your countrywoman: by dwelling your neighbour: by education, your familiar: neither is my company shamefull; for I hant the light and open fieldes: nor my conuersation dangerous: nay, it shields you from dangers, and those not the least, but of greatest consequence, the dangers of warre. And as in fight I giue you protection, so in peace I supplie you pastime; and both in warre and peace, to your lymmes I yeelde actiue plyantnesse, and to your bodyes healthfull exercise: yea I prouide you food when you are hungrie, and helpe digestion when you are full. Whence then proceedeth this vnkinde and vnusuall strangenesse? Am I heavy for burden? Forsooth, a fewe light stickes of wood. Am I combrous for carriage? I couch a part of my selfe close vnder your girdle, and the other part serueth for a walking-staffe in your hand. Am I vnhandsome in your sight? Euery piece of mee is comely, and the whole keepeth  an harmonicall proportion. Lastly, am I costly to bee prouided? or hard to bee maintayned? No, cheapnesse is my purueyour, easinesse my preseruer, neither doe I make you blow away your charges with my breath, or taynt your nose with my sent, nor defile your face and fingers with my colour, like that hellborne murderer, whom you accept before me. I appeale then to your valiant Princes, Edwards, and Henries, to the battayles of Cresey, Poyters, Agincourt, and Floddon, to the regions of Scotland, Fraunce, Spaine, Italy, Cyprus, yea and Iury, to be vmpires of this controuersie: all which (I doubt not) will with their euidence playnely prooue, that when mine aduerse party was yet scarcely borne, or lay in her swathling clouts, through mee onely your auncestours defended their Countrey, vanquished their enemies, succoured their friends, enlarged their Dominions, aduanced their religion, and made their names fearfull to the present age, and their fame euerlasting to those that ensue. Wherefore, my deare friends, seeing I have so substantially euicted the rightof my cause conforme your wils to reason, conforme your reason by practise, and conuert your practise to the good of your selues and your Country. If I be praise-worthy, esteeme me: if necessary, admit me: if profitable, employ me: so shall you reuoke my death to life, and shew your selues no degenerate issue of such honourable Progenitours. And thus much for Archery, whose tale, if it be disordered, you must beare withall, for she is a woman, & her mind is passionate.
And to giue you some taste of the Cornish mens former sufficiency that way: for long shooting, their shaft was a cloth yard, their pricks 24. score: for strength, they would pierce any ordinary armour: and one master Robert Arundell (whom I well knew) could shoot 12. score, with his right hand, with his left, and from behinde his head.
Lastly, for neere and well aimed shooting, Buts made them perfect in the one, and rouing in the othe: for prickes, the first corrupter of Archery, through too much precisenesse, were then scarcely knowne, and little practised. And in particular, I haue heard by credible report of those, who professed and protested themselues to haue bene eye-witnesses, that one Robert Bone of Antony shot at a little bird, sitting upon his cowes back, and killed it, the bird (I meane) not the cowe; which was either very cunning in the performance, or very foolish in the attempt. The first of these somewhat resembled one Menelaus, mentioned by Zosimus, lib. 2. who nocking three arrowes, & shooting them all at once, would strike three seuerall persons, and might haue deserued a double stipend in the graund Signiors gard, where the one halfe of his archers are left-handed, that they may not turne their taile to their Sultan while they draw. The other may in some sort compare with that Auo, reported by Saxo Gramaticus, for so good a markman, as with one arrow he claue the firing of his aduersaries bowe, the second he fixed betweene his fingers, and with the third strooke his shaft which he was nocking: or with that exploit of the fathers piercing an apple on his sonnes head, attributed by the same Saxo, to one Toko a Dane: and by the Switzers histories, to Guillaum Tell, the chiefe occasioner, and part-author of their libertie.
Hurling taketh his denomination from throwing of the ball, and is of two sorts, in the East parts of Cornwall, to goales, and in the West, to the countrey.
For hurling to goales, there are 15. 20. or 30. players more or lesse, chosen out on each side, who strip them- selues into their slightest apparell, and then ioyne hands in ranke one against another. Out of these ranks they match themselues by payres, one embracing another, & so passe away: euery of which couple, are specially to watch one another during the play.
After this, they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelue score off, other twayne in like distance, which they terme their Goales. One of these is appoynted by lots, to the one side, and the other to his aduerse party. There is assigned for their gard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers; the residue draw into the midst betweene both goales, where some indifferent person throweth vp a ball, the which whosoeuer can catch, and cary through his aduersaries goale, hath wonne the game. But therein consisteth one of Hercules his labours: for he that is once possessed of the ball, hath his contrary mate waiting at inches, and assaying to lay hold vpon him. The other thrusteth him in the breast, with his closed fist, to keepe him off; which they call Butting, and place in weldoing the same, no small poynt of manhood.
If hee escape the first, another taketh him in hand, and so a third, neyther is hee left, vntill hauing met (as the Frenchman sayes) Chausseura son pied, hee eyther touch the ground with some part of his bodie, in wrastling, or cry, Hold; which is the word of yeelding. Then must he cast the ball (named Dealing) to some one of his fellowes, who catching the same in his hand, maketh away withall as before; and if his hap or agility bee so good, as to shake off or outrunne his counter-wayters, at the goale, hee findeth one or two fresh men, readie to receiue and keepe him off. It is therefore a very disaduantageable match, or extraordinary accident, that leeseth many goales: howbeit, that side carryeth away best reputation, which giueth most falles in the hurling, keepeth the ball longest, and presseth his contrary neerest to their owne goale. Sometimes one chosen person on eche party dealeth the ball.
The Hurlers are bound to the obseruation of many lawes, as, that they must hurle man to man, and not two set vpon one man at once: that the Hurler against the ball, must not but, nor hand-fast vnder girdle: that hee who hath the ball, must but onely in the others brest: that he must deale no Fore-ball, viz. he may not throw it to any of his mates, standing neerer the goale, then himselfe. Lastly, in dealing the ball, if any of the other part can catch it flying between, or e’re the other haue it fast, he thereby winneth the same to his side, which straightway of defendant becommeth assailant, as the other, of assailant falls to be defendant. The least breach of these lawes, the Hurlers take for a iust cause of going together by the eares, but with their fists onely; neither doth any among them seek reuenge for such wrongs or hurts, but at the like play againe. These hurling matches are mostly vsed at weddings, where commonly the ghests vndertake to encounter all commers.
The hurling to the Countrey, is more diffuse and confuse, as bound to few of these orders: Some two or more Gentlemen doe commonly make this match, appointing that on such a holyday, they will bring to such an indifferent place, two, three, or more parishes of the East or South quarter, to hurle against so many other, of the West or North. Their goales are either those Gentlemens houses, or some townes or villages, three or foure miles asunder, of which either side maketh choice after the neernesse to their dwellings. When they meet, there is neyther comparing of numbers, nor matching of men: but a siluer ball is cast vp, and that company, which can catch, and cary it by force, or sleight, to their place assigned, gaineth the ball and victory. Whosoeuer getteth seizure of this ball, findeth himselfe generally pursued by the aduerse party; neither will they leaue, till (without all respects) he be layd flat on Gods dear earth: which fall once receiued, disableth him from any longer detayning the ball: hee therefore throwet the same (with like hazard of intercepting, as in the other hurling) to some one of his fellowes, fardest before him, who maketh away withall in like maner. Such as see where the ball is played, giue notice thereof to their mates, crying, Ware East, Ware West, &c. as the same is carried.
The Hurlers take their next way ouer hilles, dales, hedges, ditches; yea, and thorow bushes, briers, mires, plashes and riuers whatsoeuer; so as you shall sometimes see 20. or 30. lie tugging together in the water, scrambling and scratching for the ball. A play (verily) both rude & rough, and yet such, as is not destitute of policies, in some sort resembling the feats of warre: for you shall haue companies layd out before, on the one side, to encounter them that come with the ball, and of the other party to succor them, in maner of a fore-ward. Againe, other troups lye houering on the sides, like wings, to helpe or stop their escape: and where the ball it selfe goeth, it resembleth the ioyning of the two mayne battels: the slowest footed who come lagge, supply the showe of a rere-ward: yea, there are horsemen placed also on either party (as it were in ambush) and ready to ride away with the ball, if they can catch it at aduantage. But they may not so steale the palme: for gallop any one of them neuer so fast, yet he shall be surely met at some hedge corner, crosse-lane, bridge, or deep water, which (by casting the Countrie) they know he must needs touch at: and if his good fortune gard him not the better, hee is like to pay the price of his theft, with his owne and his horses ouerthrowe to the ground. Sometimes, the whole company runneth with the ball, seuen or eight miles out of the direct way, which they should keepe. Sometimes a foote-man getting it by stealth, the better to scape vnespied, will carry the same quite backwards, and so, at last, get to the goale by a windlace: which once knowne to be wonne, all that side flocke thither with great iolity: and if the same bee a Gentlemans house, they giue him the ball for a Trophee, and the drinking out of his Beere to boote.
The ball in this play may bee compared to an infernall spirit: for whosoeuer catcheth it, fareth straightwayes like a madde man, strugling and fighting with those that goe about to holde him: and no sooner is the ball gone from him, but hee resigneth this fury to the  next recyuer, and himselfe becommeth peaceable as before. I cannot well resolue, whether I should more commend this game for the manhood and exercise, or condemne it for the boysterousnes and harmes which it begetteth: for as on the one side it makes their bodies strong, hard, and nimble, and puts a courage into their hearts, to meet an enemie in the face: so on the other part, it is accompanied with many dangers, some of which do euer fall to the players share. For proofe whereof, when the hurling is ended, you shall see them retyring home, as from a pitched battaile, with bloody pates, bones broken, and out of ioynt, and such bruses as serue to shorten their daies; yet al is good play, & neuer Attourney nor Crowner troubled for the matter.
Wrastling is as full of manlinesse; more delightfull, and lesse dangerous: which pastime, either Cornish men deriued from Corineus, their first pretended founder, or (at least) it ministred some stuffe to the farcing of that fable. But to let that passe, their continual exercise in this play, hath bred them so skilfull an habit, as they presume, that neither the ancient Greek Palestritae, nor the Turks so much delighted Peluianders,not their, once countrymen, and stil neighbours, the Bretons, can bereaue them of this Laurell: and matchlesse, certes, should they be, if their cunning were answerable to their practise: for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes, in Deuon or Cornwall, where the most vntowardly amongst them, will not as readily giue you a muster of this exercise, as you are prone to require it. For performing this play, the beholders cast themselues in a ring, which they call, Making a place: into the middle space whereof, the two champion wrastlers step forth, stripped into their dublets and hosen, and vntrussed, that they may so the better commaund the vse of their lymmes, and first shaking hands in token of friendship, they fall presently to the effects of anger: for each, striueth how to take hold of other, with his best aduantage, and to beare his aduerse party downe: wherein, whosoeuer ouerthroweth his mate in such sort, as that either his backe, or the one shoulder, and contrary heele do touch the ground, is accounted to giue the fall. If he be endangered, and make a narrow escape, it is called a foyle. This hath also his lawes, of taking hold onely aboue girdle, wearing a girdle to take hold by, playing three pulles, for tryall of the mastery, the fall-giuer to be exempted from playing again with the taker, and bound to answere his successour, &c.
Many sleights and tricks appertaine hereunto, in which, a skilfull weake man wil soone get the ouerhand of one that is strong and ignorant. Such are the Trip, fore-hip, Inturne, the Faulx, forward and backward, the Mare, and diuers other like.
Amongst Cornish wrastlers, now liuing, my friend Iohn Goit may iustly challenge the first place, not by prerogatiue of his seruice in her Maiesties gard; but through hauing answered all challenges in that pastime without blemish. Neither is his commendation bounded within these limits, but his cleane made body and actiue strength, extend (with great agility) to whatsoeuer other exercise, of the arme or legge: besides his abilitie (vpon often tryall) to take charge at Sea, eyther as Master, or Captayne. All which good parts hee graceth with a good fellowlike, kinde, and respectfull carriage.
Siluer prizes for this and other actiuities, were wont to be carried about by certaine Circumforanei, or set vp for Bidales: but time or their abuse hath now worne them out of date and vse.
The last poynt of this first booke, is to plot downe the Cornish gouernment, which offreth a double consideration: the one, as an entire state of it selfe; the other, as a part of the Realme: both which shal be seuerally handled.
Cornwall, as an entire state, hath at diuers times enioyed sundry titles, of a Kingdome, Principality, Duchy, and Earledome; as may appear by these few notes, with which I haue stored my selfe out of our Chronicles.
[Anno mundi 2850.] If there was a Brute King of Brittaine, by the same authority it is to bee proued, that there was likewise a Corineus Duke of Cornwall, whose daughter Gwendolene, Brutes eldest sonne Locrine tooke to wife, and by her had issue Madan, that succeeded his father in the kingdome.
[3105.] Next him, I finde Henninus Duke, who maried Gonorille, one of King Leirs daughters and heires, and on her begat Morgan: but whiles he attempted with his other brother in law, to wrest the kingdome from their wiues father, by force of armes, before the course of nature should cast the same vpon them, Cordeilla, the third disherited sister, brought an armie out of Fraunce to the olde mans succour, and in a pitched battell bereft Henninus of his life.
[3476.] Clotenus King of Cornwall, begat a sonne named Mulmutius Dunwallo, who, when this Iland had beene long distressed with the ciuil warres of petty Kings, reduced the same againe into one peaceable Monarchy.
[3574.] Belinus, brother to that great terror of the Romanes, Brennus, had for his appannage (as the French terme it) Loegria, Wales, and Cornwall.
[3908.] Cassibelane, succeeding his brother Lud in the Kingdome, gaue to his sonne Tennancius, the Duchy of Cornwall.
[Anno Dom. 231.] After this Iland became a parcell of Iulius Caesars conquests, the same rested it selfe, or was rather vexed a long time, vnder the gouernment of such rulers, as the Romanes sent hither. But the Bretons turning, at last, their long patience into a sudden fury, rose in armes, slewe Alectus, the Emperour Dioclesians deputy, and inuested their leader Asclepiodotus Duke of Cornwall, with the possession of the kingdome.
[329.] Conan Meridock, nephew to Octauius, whome the Emperour Constantine appoynted gouernour of this Iland, was Duke of Cornwall.
[351.] At the Sinode of Arles in Fraunce, there was present one Corinius, sonne to Salomon Duke of Cornwall.
[383.] After the abouenamed Octauius his decease, Maximianus, a Romane, who maried his daughter, succeeded him also in gouernment: betweene whome, and the fore-remembred Conan, grew great warres; which concluding at last in a peace, Maxim. passed with an armie into Fraunce, conquered there Armorica (naming it little Brittaine) and gaue the same in fee to Conan; who being once peaceably setled, wrote ouer vnto Dionethus, or Dionotus Duke or King of Cornwall, (as Mathew of West, termeth him) to send him some Maidens, whom he might couple in mariage with his people; whereon S. Vrsula & her companions the 11000. virgins, were shipped, & miscaried, as their wel known hiftory reporteth.
Nicholas Gille, a French writer, deliuereth (vpon the credit of our British Historians) that about this time, Meroueus, a Paynim king of Fraunce, caused his owne sonne to be throwne into the fire and burned, for that he had slayne the king of Cornwall, as he returned from a feast.
Hee also maketh mention of one Moigne, brother to Aurelius and
Vter-pendragon, Duke of Cornwall, & gouerner of the Realme, vnder
the Emperour Honorius.
[443.] Carodoc Duke of Cornwall was employed (sayth D. Kay) by Octauius, about founding the Vniuersitie of Cambridge.
[500.] And vpon Igerna wife to Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall, Vter begat the worthy Arthur, and a daughter called Amy.
[526.] This Arthur discomfited in fight, one Childerick, a king of the Saxons, and afterwards, vpon certaine couenants, suffred him quietly to depart the Realme. But Childerick violating the word of a king, bound with the solemnity of an othe, inuaded eftsoones the Westerne coasts, harrowing the Country as he passed, vntil Cador, Earle of Cornwall, became Gods Minister, to take vengeance of his periury, by reauing off his life.
That Marke swayed the Cornish septer, you cannot make question, vnlesse you will, withall, shake the irrefragable authoritie of the round tables Romants.
[603.] Blederic Duke of Cornwall, associated with other Welsh kings, darrayned a battel against Ethelferd, king of the Northumbers, & by the valiant forgoing of his life, got his partners the victory.
Iuor, sonne to Alane king of little Brittaine, first wan from the
Saxons, Cornwall, Deuon, and Somerset shires, by force of armes,
and then, taking to wife Ethelburg, cousin to Kentwin, king of
Westsex, enioyed the same by composition.
[720.] Roderic, king of the Bretons in Wales and Cornwall, (vnder whom, Bletius was Prince of this last, and of Deuon) valiantly repulsed Adelred, king of Westsex, what time he assayled him in Cornwall: yet in the end, being ouer-matched in number, and tired with continuall onsets, he was driuen to quit the same, and retire himselfe into Wales.
[866.] Polidor Virgill maketh mention of one Reginaldus Comes Britannorum, in the time of king Etheldred.
[872.] Dungarth king of Corn, by mischance was drowned.
[900.] Alpsius is recorded (about this time) for Duke of Deuon and Cornwall.
[959.] Orgerius Duke of Cornwall, had a daughter named Alfride, the fame of whose beauty, caused King Edgar to send Earle Athelwold, for obtaining her at her fathers hands in mariage. But the Earle with the first sight of this faire Lady, was so besotted in her loue, that preferring the accomplishment of his lust, before the duety of his alleageance, he returnes answer to the King, how the common report far exceeded her priuate worth, which came much short of meriting a partnership in so great a Princes bed: and (not long after) begged and obtayned the Kings good will, to wed her himselfe. But so braue a lustre could not lye long concealed, without shining foorth into Edgars knowledge, who finding the truth of his Ambassadours falshood, tooke Athelwold at an aduantage, slewe him, and maried her, beeing a widdowe, whome hee had wooed a mayde.
Hitherunto, these titles of honour carry a kinde of confusednes, and rather betokened a successiue office, then an established dignity. The following ages receiued a more distinct forme, and left vs a certeyner notice.
[1067.] What time William the bastard subdued this Realme, one Condor possessed the Earledome of Cornwall, and did homage for the same: he had issue another Condor, whose daughter and heire Agnes, was maried to Reignald Earle of Bristowe, base sonne to King Henry the first.
This note I borrowed out of an industrious collection, which setteth downe all the noble mens creations, Armes, and principall descents, in euery Kings dayes since the conquest: but master Camden, our Clarentieulx, nameth him Cadoc, and saith farther, that Robert Morton, brother to William Conquerour, by his mother Herlot, was the first Earle of Norman blood, and that his sonne William succeeded him; who taking part with Duke Robert, against Henry the first, thereby got captiuity, and lost his honour, with which that King inuested the forementioned Reignald. In this variance, it is great reason, that the ballance panche on his side, who hath both authority to establish his assertion, and a rarely approued knowledge, to warrant his authoritie. Hee dying issue-lesse, Richard the first gaue this Earledome to his brother Iohn.
[1257.] Iohns sonne, Henry the third, honoured therewith his brother Richard King of the Romanes, a Prince no lesse plentifully flowing in wealth, then his brother was often driuen to extreame shifts, through needinesse: which made that barbarous age to poetrize,
Nummus ait pro me, nublt Cornubia Romae.
Money sayd, that for her sake,
Rome did Cornwall, to wife take.
He had issue, Henry Earle of Cornwall, who deceased issuelesse: and Edmond, whose daughter and heire Isabell (sayth mine authour) was married to Morice Fitsharding Lord Barckleigh: but others affirme, that this Edmond dyed without issue.
Edward the, second, degenerating in his choyce, created his mynion, Peter Gaueston, a Gascoyne, Earle of this County, whose posterity ended in himselfe, and himself by a violent death.
The last title of this Earldome, expired in Iohn of Eltham, yonger sonne to that King Edward. After which, King Edward the third, by act of Parliament in the 11. yeere of his raigne, erected the same to a Duchy, the first in England, and graced it with his sonne, the blacke Prince: for his heroicall vertues did rather bestow, then receiue estimation from whatsoeuer dignitie. Since which it is successiuely incorporated in the Kings eldest sonne, and hath bene so enioyed, by Richard the second, Henry the fift, Henry the sixt, Edward his sonne, Edward the fift, Edward sonne to Richard the third, Arthure, and Henry, sonnes to Henry the seuenth, and lastly, Edward the sixt: 10. Dukes in the whole.
These Earles and Dukes haue from the beginning, beene priuiledged with royall iurisdiction or Crowne rights, namely, giuing of liberty to send Burgesses to the Parliaments, returne of writs, custome, toll, Mynes, Treasure-trovee, wards, &c. and (to this end) appoynted their speciall officers, as Sheriffe, Admirall, Receyuer, Hauener, Customer, Butler, Searcher, Comptroller,  Gaugeor, Excheator, Feodary, Auditor, Clarke of the Market, &c. besides the L. Warden, and those others beforeremembred, whose functions appertayne to the iurisdiction of the Stannary.
To the preseruation of which royalties, our Parliaments haue euer carried a reuerend regard. For by that Act, 17. Edw. 4. which enioyneth forrayne Marchants to bestow such money as they receiue for their wares, in English commodities, or to pay the same vnto Englishmen, the Kings part of all forfeytures within Cornwall, is reserued to the Duke. So doth that, 11. H. 7, concerning the reformation of waights & measures, prouide, that it shall not be hurtful or preiudiciall to the Prince, within the Duchy of Cornwall, nor to any waights of the cunnage: and so doth that 1. H. 8. touching Excheators, exempt that officer in Cornwall. It should seeme, that the first Earles bare a heauy hand in commaund ouer their subiects: for both diuers ancient records (as I haue learned) make mention of tributes, imposed (almost) vpon euery thing of profit; and it may farther be gathered, in that, as well townes, as particular persons, were faine to procure Charters and graunts from them, for corporations, faires, markets, taking or freeing from tolls, mines, fishing, fowling, hawking, hunting, and what not? so as (vpon the matter) the plight of a Cornish Inhabitant and a French pezant did differ very little.
Which bondage, one not long agoe sought in part to reestablish, vnder pretence of receiuing a rent decayed euer since 9. H. 2. and aduancing her Maiesties profit: & to this end procured Letters patents, that none should salt, dry, or pack any fish in Deuon or Cornwall, without his licence and warrant. A matter that would, by consequence, haue made him an absolute disposer of all the Westerne shipping and traffike, and their sea and land dependants.
Few words, but folding vp a multitude of inconueniences to her
Maiestie, & the whole Commonwealth.
Wherefore the Cornish Iustices of the peace, became humble suiters to the Lords of her Highnes priuy Councell, for a necessary and speedy redresse herein: and through the neuer fayling forwardnesse, and backing of Sir Walter Ralegh, obtayned a reuocation. Howbeit, this ill weed, rather cut off by the ground, then plucked vp by the roote, once, yea twice or thrice grew forth againe, but yet, maugre the warmers and waterers, hath by her Maiesties gracious breath beene euer parched vp, and (as is hoped) will neuer shoote out heereafter, at least it shall still finde an vnited resistance, of most earnest suit, and pregnant reasons, to beat it downe.
The Earles had foure houses, builded Castle-wise for their residence, viz. Trematon, Launceston, Restormel, and Liskerd. But since the principality of Wales and this Duchy became united in one person, the larger scope, and greater commaund of that, hath robbed this of his Lords presence, & by consequence, the strength of these Castles could not so gard them, against the battery of time, and neglect, but that, from faire buildings, they fell into foule reparations, and from foule reparations, are now sunke into vtter ruine.
King H. the 8. affecting his honour of Newelm, & respecting the commodities, which Wallingford Castle might afford it, tooke this last by act of Parl. from the Duchy, & in lieu thereof, annexed certain manners lying in Corn.falne  to the Crowne, through the Marques of Excesters attainder: which Queene Marie afterwards restored in tayle to his sonne, the Earle of Deuon, and vpon his issueles decease receiued them againe.
It were against duetie to make question, whether in this exchange, the kings meaning went with his pretence; and yet wee finde it an ordinary policy amongst Princes, to send their successours, with a kinde of libera, or honoraria legatio, into the remoter quarters of their dominions, as if they would shunne occasions of ielousie, springing from an ouer-neere neighbourhood.
Howsoeuer, the same King, not long after, passed away, this Castle, vnto Christs Colledge in Oxford, who vse it as a place of retrayt, when the Vniuersitie is visited with any contagious sicknes.
I haue vnderstood, that question is made amongst men of knowledge, what is become of this Duchy. Some holding it altogether extinct, for want of the kings issue male: some auerring, that it is suspended in nubibus (as they say) pro tempore: and some supposing, that it continueth in full power, and that her Maiestie hath onely custodiam ducatus, as of Bishopricks, sede vacante. Penes Iudicem lis sit. Once, euery Sheriffe is summoned to enter his account in the Duchy Exchequer, at Lostwithyel, and from thence, referred ouer to the Exchequer above.
Cornwall considered as a part of the Realme, sorteth her gouernment into two kindes; spirituall, and temporall.
Touching the spirituall: In ancient times this Shire had his particular Bishop: and I find, how in the yeere, 905. Forinosus the Pope sent a sharpe letter to Edward the sonne of Alfride, reproouing him, for suffering the West Saxons to be destitute of Bishops seuen yeeres together. Whereon, by the aduice of his Councell, and Arch-bishop Pleymund, he ordayned seuen bishops in one day; amongst whome Herstane was consecrated to Cornwall, and Eadwolfe to Crediton, which last had three townes in Cornwall, assigned him, to wit, Pontium, Coelling, and Landwhitton, that thence he might yeerely visit the people, to root out (as mine author sayth) their errours: for before, as much as in them lay, they withstood the truth, and obeyed not the Apostolike decrees. Whereon I ground two collections: the first, that the light of the Gospell tooke not his originall shining into these parts, from the Romish Bishop: the other that the Cornish (like their cousins the Welsh] could not bee soone or easily induced to acknowledge his iurisdiction. The Bishops see was formerly at S. Petrocks in Bodmyn; but by reason the Danes burned there his Church and palace, [979.] the same remooued to S. Germanes. After that, Lumigius, from a Monke of Winchester, elected Abbot of Tavistoke, [1031.] and from that Abbey, aduanced to the Bishoprick of Creditune, by his grace with Canutus King of the Angles, obtayned an annexion of Cornwall (lately fallen voyd) and so made one Dioces of that and Deuon, as it hath euer since continued. This Bishoprick had diuers faire houses and large reuenues in Cornwall: but one Veyzy, Bishop of the dioces in King H. the 8. time, coniecturing (as it is conceyued) that the Cathedrall Churches should not long ouer-liue the suppressed Monasteries, made hauock of those liuings before-hand, some by long leasing, and some by flat selling, so as he left a poore remainder to his successours.
It oweth subiection to the Metropolitane of Canterbury, and hath one onely Archdeaconry, which place is now supplied by master Thomas Sumaster, who adorneth the Gentility of his birth, with the honestie of his life, and by both sorts of feeding, approueth himselfe a liberall and commendable pastor.
Certaine Peculiars there are, some appertaining to the dignities of the Cathedrall Church at Exon, to wit, S. Probuss, and S. Peran: and some to priuate persons, as Burien and Temple.
[Anno Mundi 3172.] For religious houses, I read, that in the time of Paganisme, Cunedag builded a Temple in Cornwall to Apollo, but where it stood I know not. Since it made roome to Christianity, my (not ouer-curious) enquiry hath learned out these:
Pryories, at S. Germaines, Bodmyn, Tywardreth.
Nunries, at S. Martine.
Fryeries, at Launceston, Truro, Bodmyn.
Colledges, at Peryn, Crantock, Buryen.
Hospitals, at Helston.
Of parishes, the County hath 161. as master Camden noteth, and as others haue, about 180.
Doubtles, the Hierarchy of our English Church, if it were kept fast to his first institution, might with his far better effects, close vp their mouthes, who would thrust vpon vs their often varying discipline. But albeit neither our time can well brooke it, nor the succeeding would long hold it: yet it shal not do much amisse, to look vpon the originall beauty thereof, if (at least) I be able to tricke the same truly out, & doe not blemish it with my pensil.
At the planting of Christian religion, Monasteries & cathedral Churches were likewise founded, which serued for seed plots of the ministery, & sent them abroad in yerely progresses, to labour the Lords vineyard. Afterwards, about the time of our last conquest, the country was sorted by a more orderly maner into parishes, & euery parish committed to a spirituall father, called their Parson, who stept into that roome, not by election (as some imagine) but mostly, by the nomination of him that eyther built the Church, or endowed the same with some liuelyhood, or was L. of the soyle where it stood. As for Vicarages, those daies knew few, for they grew vp in more corrupt ages, by the religious houses encrochments. Besides this Incumbent, euery parish had certaine officers, as Churchwardens, Sidemen, and 8. men, whose duety bound them to see the buildings & ornaments appertaining to Gods seruice, decently maintayned, & good order there reuerently obserued. And lest negligence, ignorance, or partiality, might admit or foist in abuses, & corruption, an Archdeacon was appointed to take account of their doings by an yerely visitation, & they there sworn duly to make it. He & they againe had their Ordinary, the Bishop, euery 3. yere to ouerlook their actions, & to examine, allow, & admit the ministers, as they and the Bishop were semblably subiect to the Metropolitanes suruey euery 7. yere. For warning the Clergy, & imparting their superiours directions, the Curats chose yerely their Deanes rurall. The Bishop, in his cathedrall church, was associated with certaine Prebendaries, some resident, who serued as his ghostly counsel in points of his charge, & others not bound to ordinary residence, who were called to consultation, vpon things of greater consequence: & for matters of principal importance, the Archbishop had his prouincial Sinod, & the whole clergy their national.
Now then, if euery one thus entrusted, would remember that he had a soule to saue or lose, by the well or ill discharging of so waighty a function, and did accordingly from time to time bestowe his requisite endeauour, what the least fault could escape the espiall of so many eyes, or the righting amongst so many hands? But I haue thrust my sickle ouer-farre into anothers haruest: let my mistaking be corrected, and in regard of my good meaning, pardoned.
The Temporal gouernment of Cornwall, shooteth out also into two branches, Martiall, and Ciuill.
For martiall affaires, master Camden noteth out of Iohannes Sarisburiensis, that the Cornish mens valiancy purchased them such reputation amongst our ancestours, as they (together with those of Deuon and Wiltshire) were wont to be entrusted, for the Subsidiary Cohort, or band of supply. An honour equall to the Romanes Triarii, and the shoot-anker of the battell. With which concurreth the ancient, if not authenticall testimony of Michael Cornubiensis, who had good reason to knowe the same, being that Countryman, and more to report it: his verses, for which I haue also beene beholding to M. Camden, are these:
Rex Arcturus nos primos Cornubienses
Bellum facturus vocat, vt puta Caesaris enses
Nobis non alijs, reliquis, dat primitus ictum
Per quem pax lisque, nobis sit vtrumq; relictum
Quid nos deterret, si firmiter in pede stemus,
Fraus ni nos superet, nihil est quod non superemus.
I will now set downe the principall Commaunders & Officers, touching these martiall causes, together with the forces of the shire.
Lord Lieutenant generall, Sir Walter Ralegh.
| Sir Frauncis Godolphin, |
| Sir Nicholas Parker, |
| Sir Reignald Mohun, |
Deputie | Peter Edgecumb, | or any 3.
Lieutenants | Bernard Greinuile, | of them.
| Christopher Harris, |
| Richard Carew, |
Colonell generall, Sir Nicholas Parker.
Marshall, Bernard Greinuile.
Treasurer, Richard Carew.
Master of the Ordinance, Will. Treffry.
Colonell of the horse, Iohn Arundell of Trerise.
Sergeant maior, Humphrey Parcks.
Quarter Master, William Carnsew.
Prouost Marshall, Iohn Harris.
Scowt Master, Otwell Hill.
Corporals of the field, | Rattenbury.
Ammunition Master, Leon. Blackdon.
Trench Master, Cooke.
Regiments. Companies, Numbers, Arm.Pikes, Muskets, Caliueri ————————————————————————— Sir Fra. Godol. | 12. | 1200. | 470. | 490. | 240. | Sir Will. Beuil | 6. | 670. | 225. | 315. | 130. | Sir Rei. Mohun | 6. | 600. | 200. | 210. | 190. | Ber. Greinuile | 10. | 1000. | 370. | 390. | 240. | Ri. Carew | 5. | 500. | 170. | 300. | 30. |*1 Antony Rouse | 6. | 760. | 270. | 320. | 170. | Ch. Treuanion | 5. | 500. | 180. | 190. | 130. | Will. Treffry | 4. | 400. | 140. | 130. | 130. |*2 Sir Nic. Parker | 2. | 200. | 60. | 80. | 60. |*3 Ha. Viuian | 1. | 100. | 40. | 40. | 20. |*4 Ar. Harris | 1. | 100. | 40. | 40. | 20. |*5 Summa, | 58. | 6030. | 2165. | 2535. | 1330. | —————————————————————————
[*1 For Causam Bay] [*2 For Foy] [*3 Fpr Pendennis] [*4 For S. Mawes] [*5 For the Mount]
This may serue for a generall estimat of the Cornish forces, which I haue gathered, partly out of our certificate made to the Lords 1599. partly by information from the Sargeant maior, & partly through mine own knowledge. There are many more vnarmed pikes, which I omit, as better fitting a supply vpon necessitie, then to bee exposed (for opposed) to an enemie. The number as it standeth, much exceedeth the shires proportion, if the same he compared with Deuon and other Counties: which groweth, for that their neerenesse on all quarters to the enemy, and their farnesse from timely succour by their friends, haue forced the Commaunders, to call forth the vttermost number of able hands to fight, and rather by perswasion then authority, procured them to arme themselues beyond lawe and theirability. Which commendable indeuour shall not, I hope, ought not, I am sure, turne them to the preiudice of any vnwonted charge hereafter.
They are all prouided of powder, bullet, & match in competent sort, & order taken for furnishing of victuals, and mounting a third part of the shot (at least) vpon cause of seruice.
Light horses, the Lords in their directions, enioyne for orders sake, and the Lieutenants excuse it by insufficiency. Hitherto neither hath the commaundement bin reuoked, nor the omission controlled.
In the yeere 1588. when the Spanish floting Babel pretended the conquest of our Iland (which like Iosuahs armie they compassed, but vnlike him could not with their blasting threats ouerthrow our walles) it pleased her Maiestie of her prouident and gracious care, to furnish Cornwall with ordinance and munition, from her owne store, as followeth:
| of cast Iron, well mounted vpon carryages 2. Sacres | with wheeles, shodde with Iron, and fur- 2. Minions | nished with Ladles, Spunges, and Ram- 2. Faulcons | mers, with all other necessaries.
Spare axeltrees, sixe.
Spare pairs of wheeles, shod with Iron, three.
Shot of Iron for the sayd pieces, of eche sort, twenty.
Canon corne powder for the said ordinance, sixe hundred
Fine corne powder, three thousand six hundred waight.
Lead, three thousand sixe hundred wayght.
Match, three thousand sixe hundred wayght.
All which, saue the ordinance itselfe, partly by piecemeale employment, and partly by ouerlong, or euil keeping, is now growne to nought, or naught.
After the sudden surprize of Pensants, anno 1595. by direction from the Lords, order was taken, that vpon any alarum, the next Captains should forthwith put themselues with their companies, into their assigned seacoast townes, whom the adioyning land-forces were appoynted to second and third, as the opportunity of their dwellings affoorded best occasion.
The yeere following, by a new commaund, 4000. were allotted out, and prouided in a readines to march for the ayd of Deuon, if cause so required, as the Lord Lieutenant of that County had the same order, vpon like necessitie, to send an equall number into Cornwall.
Lastly, anno 1599. when the Spanish fleet was againe expected, the Cornish forces voluntarily assembled themselues, and made head, at the entrance, middle, and Westpart of their south coast.
As for soldiers sent into other places, Cornwall yeeldeth, vpon euery occasion, a proportionable supply to the wants of Ireland; neither is acquitted from performing the like seruice for Fraunce, if the employment be in Brittaine or Normandy. Which often ventings notwithstanding, vpon the instance of Captaine Lower, and the sollicitation of his friends, there passed ouer this last yeere into Netherland, at one time, 100. voluntaries and vpwards, there to serue under Sir Frauncis Vere. And besides, they often make out men of warre against the Spaniards.
Forts and Castles there are; some, olde and worne out of date; and some in present vse, with allowance of garrison.
Amongst the first sort, I reckon these, appertayningto the Duchy, as also Tintogel, and diuers round holds on the tops of hils; some single, some double, and treble trenched, which are termed, Castellan Denis, or Danis, as raysed by the Danes, when they were destyned to become our scourge.
Moreouer, in this ranke wee may muster the earthen Bulwarks, cast vp in diuers places on the South coast, where any commodity of landing seemeth to inuite the enemie, which (I gesse) tooke their originall from the statute 4. H. 8. and are euer sithence duely repayred, as need requireth, by order to the Captaynes of those limits.
Of the later sort, is a fort at Silley, called [blank] reduced to a more defensible plight, by her Maiesties order, and gouerned by the foreremembred Sir Frauncis Godolphin, who with his inuention and purse, bettered his plot and allowance, and therein hath so tempered strength with delight, and both with vse, as it serueth for a sure hold, and a commodious dwelling.
The rest are S. Michaels mount, Pendenis fort, and S. Mawes Castle, of which I shall haue occasion to speake more particularly in my second booke.
Of Beacons, through the neernesse to the sea, and the aduantage of the hilly situations, welneere euery parish is charged with one, which are watched, secundum vsum, but (so farre as I can see) not greatly ad propositum: for the Lords better digested instructions, haue reduced the Countrey, by other meanes, to a like ready, and much lesse confused way of assembling, vpon any cause of seruice.
For carrying of such aduertisements and letters, euery thorow-fare weekly appoynteth a foot-Poast, to giue  his hourely attendance, whose dispatch is welneere as speedy as the horses.
The last branch of my diuision, and so of this book, leadeth me to entreat of Cornwals ciuill government, as it passeth for a part of the Realme; and that may againe be subdiuided into iurisdiction particular, and general. The particular iurisdiction is exercised by Constables, Stewards of Courts Barons, and Leets, Franchises, Hundreds, & Portreeues, & Maiors; of boroughs & corporations of the Stannaries, we haue spoken already. The generall, by the Clarke of the market, Coroners, Vice-admiral, Sherife, Iustices of the peace, & Iudges of assize.
Constables of the hundreds the shire hath none, but this office for giuing of warnings, & collection of rates, is supplyed by the deputy Baylifs, who performe it not with that discretion, trust, secrecy, & speed, which were often requisite to the importance of the affaires. I haue knowne the Iudges moued diuers times, for their opinion touching the erecting of some, & found them of seueral resolutions, which giueth little encouragement to an innouation. Neither can the parish Constables well brooke the same, because it submitteth them to a subalterne commaund, more then of custome; whereas now in their parishes they are absolute, the least whereof hath one, the middle sized 2. the bigger 3. or 4. I would not wish the blaze of their authority blemished, if there were as much care vsed in choyce of the persons, as the credit of their place deserueth. Wise direction without diligent execution, proueth fruitles. Now, as the former is deriued from her Maiesty to the Lords, & from the Lords to the Iustices; so this later lieth in the hands of the Constables. Watches and searches oftentimes carry waighty consequence, and miscary in the managing: and it was seene in the last Cornish rebellion, how the Constables commaund & example, drew many of the not worst meaning people, into that extremest breach of duty.
Franchises, Cornwall hath the Duchy, Rialton, Clifton, Minhinet, Pawton, Caruanton, Stoke Cliuisland, Medland, and Kellylond, which haue their Baylifs as the Hundreds, to attend the publike seruices.
Hundreds there are but 9. East, West, Trig, Lesnewith, Stratton, Powder, Pider, Kerier, & Penwith, which containe [blank] tithings: by these the shire is deuided into limits, & all his rates proportioned as followeth:
| East H. | Trig H. | Powder H. | Kerier.
East| West H. N.| Lesneweth H. S.| Pider H. W.| Penwith.
| Stratton H.
In all rates, the East & South limits beare 3. parts in 5. to the North and West. So in the Easterne, dooth East Hundred to that of West: in the Southerne, Powder to Pider: and in the Westerne, Kerier to Penwith. In the Northern, Trig beareth 5. Lesnewith & Stratton 4. apiece. There is the like proportion made of the parishes in the Easterne diuision, but with little satisfaction of diuers: neither will it euer fare otherwise, & therefore (this notwithstanding) I wish it followed in the residue.
The conuenientest & vsual places of assembly for the whole County, is Bodmyn : for the East and North, Launceston: for the South and West, Truro: for the East, Liskerd: for the North, Camelford: for the South, S. Colombs; for the West, Helston.
For the Hundreds of East, Kellington : of West, Lanreath; of Trig,
Bodmyn: of Lesnewith, Camelford: of Stratton, that towne: of Powder,
Grampond: of Pider, S. Columbs: of Kerier, Helston: of Penwith,
East H. hath parishes 30. corporations 2.
West H. parishes 19. corporations 2.
Corporations are priuiledged with the administration of iustice, within their liberties, more or lesse, according to the purport of their Charter.
Such are Saltash, Launceston, Liskerd, Eastloo, Westloo, Bodmyn,
Camelford, Lostwithiel, Padstowe, Grampond, Truro, Helston, Perin.
The Maiors and Recorders, in some of these, are Iustices of the peace, for their owne limits, and welneere allof them haue large exemptions and iurisdictions. A garment (in diuers mens opinions) ouer-rich and wide, for many of their wearish and ill-disposed bodies. They alleadge for themselues, that speedy iustice is administred in their townes, and that it saueth great expences, incident to assize trials, which poor Artificers cannot vndergoe. But the other answere, that these trials are often poasted on, with more haste then good speed, while an ignorant fellow, of a sowter, becomes a magistrate, & takes vpon him peremptory iudgement, in debts and controuersies, great and doubtfull. Againe, the neernesse of commencing their suits, draweth on more expences, then the shortnes of tryals cutteth off, whereas longer respite would make way to deliberation, and deliberation open the doore to reason, which by the fumes arising from cholers boyling heat, is much obscured. Thus dooth the opportunity inure them to vexation; vexation begetteth charges, and charge hatcheth pouerty: which pouerty, accompanied with idlenes (for they cannot follow law, and worke) seeketh not to releeue itselfe by industry, but by subtilty, wherethrough they become altogether depraued in body, goods, and minde. Adde hereunto that the Maior exercising his office but during one yeere, for the first halfe thereof is commonly to learne what he ought to doe, & in the other halfe, feeling his authoritie to wane, maketh friends of that Mammon, & serueth others turnes, to be requited with the like, borrowing from iustice, what hee may lend to his purse, or complices: for as it hath bene well sayd, He cannot long be good, that knowes not why he is good. They conclude, how from these imperfect associations, there spring pride amongst themselues, disdayne at their neighbours, and Monopolies against the Commonwealth.
This inuectiue is somewhat deeply steeped in gall, & must therefore bee interpreted, not of all, but the worst. Surely, for mine owne part, I am of opinion, that how commodious soeuer this iurisdiction may proue amongst themselues, it falleth out sundry times very distastefull and iniurious towards strangers; and strangers they reckon all that are not Burgesses. Now, let such a one bee arrested within their corporations, no sureties but townsmen can finde acceptance, be his behauiour neuer so honest,  his cause neuer so iust, his calling neuer so regardfull, & his ability neuer so sufficient; yet if he haue none acquaintance in the towne, if the action brought, carry a shew of waight, if the bringer be a man of sway, in, or neere the towne, if any other townsman of the higher sort beare him an old grudge, he must be contented to fret the colde yrons with his legges, and his heart with griefe: for what one, amongst them, will procure an euerlasting enemy at his doore, by becomming surety for a party, in whom he possesseth none, or little interest? The ancients vsed to grace their Cities with seuerall titles, as Numantia bellicosa, Thebae superbae, Corinthus ornata, Athenae doctae, Hierusalem sancta, Carthago emula, &c. and the present Italians doe the like touching theirs, as Roma santa, Venetia ricca, Florenza bella, Napoli gentile, Ferrara ciuile, Bologna grassa, Rauenna antiqua, &c. In an imitation whereof, some of the idle disposed Cornish men nicke their townes with by-words, as, The good fellowship of Padstowe, Pride of Truro, Gallants of Foy, &c.
The Clarke of the markets office, hath beene heretofore so abused by his deputies, to their priuate gaine, that the same is tainted with a kinde of discredit, which notwithstanding, being rightly & duly executed, would worke a reformation of many disorders, and a great good to the Common-wealth.
Foure Coroners, chosen by the voyces of the freeholders, do serue the shire, who for the present are, Bligh, Tub, Trenance, and Bastard.
The Vice-admiralty is exercised by M. Charles Treuanion, a Gentleman, through his vertue, as free from greedinesse, as through his faire liuelyhood, farre from needinesse: and by daily experience giuing proofe, that a minde valewing his reputation at the due price, will easily repute all dishonest gaine much inferiour thereunto, & that in conuersing with the worst sort of people (which his office oftentimes enforceth) he can no more be disgraced, then the Sunne beames by shining vpon a dunghill will be blemished.
I haue here set downe the names of those Commissioners for the peace, who at this present make their ordinary residence in Corn. as they stand placed in the Commission, where the priority is mostly deferred to antiquity.
Q. Fra. Godolphin M. 1.| Carolus Treuanion 16.
Q. Nic. Parker M. 2.| Thomas S. Aubin 17.
Q. Iona. Trelawney M. 3.| Q. Rob Moyle 18.
Q. Reg. Mohun M. 4.| Q. Ed Hancock. 19.
Q. P. Petrus Edgecomb 5.| Tristramus Arscot 20.
Q. Ric. Carew de Anth. 6.| Thomas Lower 21.
Q. Bern. Greinuile 7.| W. Treffry de Fowey 22.
Q. Antonius Rowse 8.| Iohannes Hender 23.
Petrus Courtney 9.| Q. Willi. Wray 24.
Q. Tho. Chiuerton 10.| Georgius Kekiwiche 25.
Q. Christ. Harris 11.| Q. Arth. Harris 26.
Io. Arund. de Trerise 12.| Io. Harris de Lansre. 27.
Th. Arun. de Taluerne 13.| Q. Degor. Chamons 28.
Q. Nic. Prideaux 14.| Iohannes Trefusis 29.
Q. Hannibal Viuian 15.| Otwel Hill 30.
Their ordinary use was, to begin the quarter Sessions for the East halfe of the Shire, on the Tuesdayes and Wednesdayes, at Bodmyn, and to adiourne the  same for the West halfe, to be ended at Truro the Friday and Saterday following, leaning one dayes space for riding betweene. But about twenty yeres sithence, the Easterne Iustices making the greatest number, and in this separation having farthest to ride, when they were disposed to attend both places, either in regard of their ease, or vpon scruple of conscience, or for both together, called into question, whether this custome were as warrantable by right, as it was pleadable by prescription; and whether it as much aduanced the administration of iustice, as it eased the trauell of the people. And thereupon they began to appoynt the intire Sessions at either place one after another. This was sometimes performed, and sometimes broken, by the Westerne Iustices, so as seuerall and contrary precepts of summons were directed to the Sheriffe, with the great vncertaynty, ill example, and trouble of the Countrey. It hapned, that one newly associated, and not yet seasoned with either humour, made this motion for a reconcilement, viz. that the Sessions should enterchangeably one quarter begin at Bodmyn, and end at Truro; and the next begin, at Truro, and end at Bodmyn; and that no recognisance should be discharged, or cause decided out of his owne diuision. This proposition, as it gaue the Westerne Iustices the greatest part of their will, so it salued a sore which chiefly grieued the Easterne: for before, what was done in the beginning at one place, was, or might be vndoone in the ending at the other: wherefore all parties willingly condiscended hereunto, and it hath euer sithence beene accordingly obserued.
Another variance hath sometimes fallen out betweene Cornwall and Deuon, about the time of keeping their Sessions. For whereas the Statute 2. H. 5. enacteth that the Iustices shall hold the same in the first weeke after S. Michael, the Epiphanie, the clause of Easter, and the translation of S. Thomas (which, worthily blotted out of the Calender, Teste Newbrigensi, is euer the seuenth of Iuly) and their oath bindeth them to a strickt obseruation hereof: the question hath growne, when those festiuall dayes fall vpon a Munday, whether the Sessions shall be proclaimed for that weeke, or the next, and the generall practise hath gone with the former. But the Cornish Iustices, waying, that prescription is no Supersedeas for swearing, vpon debating of the matter, haue resolued, and lately accustomed, in such cases, to put it ouer vnto the weeke ensuing: and these are their reasons: If the Sessions must bee kept in the first weeke after, it cannot admit an interpretation of the same weeke it selfe. Againe, the clause of Easter, mencioned in the one, should seeme to make a construction of like meaning in the rest. Besides, those, who suite themselues to the other fashion, doe yet swarue therefrom, if those feastes fall vpon any later day in the weeke then Munday; for then they deferre it till the next: and yet, seeing no day certain is directed for beginning the Sessions; if they will constantly binde themselues to the former sense, when those dayes fall on the Friday, they ought to call it for the morrow following. The Iudges of the circuits Oracle, to which the Commission of the peace referreth the Iustices Quaeres, hath resolued, that neyther of these wayes tendeth to any breach of the lawe. Once sure it is, that the Terme-suiters may best speed their businesse, by supporting the former: for the end of these Sessions deliuereth them space inough  to ouertake the beginning of the Termes.
For the rest, equity beareth more sway, then grauity, at the Cornish bench, and in confusion they mayntayne equality: for though they speake more then one at once, yet no one mans speach, or countenance, can carry a matter against the truth. Neither doe assertions, but proofes in hearings; nor vouchings, but shewing of law cases, in deciding, order the controuersies: and as diuersitie in opinions breedeth no enmity, so ouer-ruling by most voyces, is taken for no disgrace.
One only Iudge was wont, in three dayes at farthest, to dispatch the Assizes, & gayle deliuery, at Launceston, the vsuall (though not indifferentest) place, where they are holden. But malice and iniquity haue so encreased, through two contrary effects, wealth and pouerty, that now necessity exacteth the presence of both, and (not seldome) an extent of time.
I haue heard the Iudges note, that besides their ordinary paines, they are troubled with more extraordinary supplications in Cornwall, then in any other shire: whereto they yet giue no great encouragement, while the causes are on the backside, poasted ouer to Gentlemens hearing, and account seldome taken or made, what hath bene done therein.
Verily, we must acknowledge, that ever since our remembrance, God hath blessed this Westerne circuit with speciall choyce of vpright and honest Iudges; amongst whom, this of our last is not the least: for they doe so temper a quick conceit with a stayed iudgement, a strict seuerity in punishing, with a milde mercy in remitting, and an awfull grauitie at the Bench, with a familiar kindnesse in conuersation, as they make proofe, that contrarie vertues may, by the diuers wayes of loue and reuerence, meet in one onely poynt of honour.
The common Gayle of the shire for offendours, is kept at Launceston: for that statute, 33. H. 8. which amongst other shires, gaue the Cornish Iustices leave to alter the same, by a Prouiso, tooke it away againe, in that this keepership is annexed to the Constableship of the Castle, and that graunted out in lease.
I wil conclude with the highest iurisdiction, namely, the Parliament, to which Cornwall, through the grace of his Earles, sendeth an equall, if not larger number of Burgesses, to any other shire. The boroughs so priuiledged, more of fauour (as the case now standeth with many of them) then merit, are these following: Launceston, Downeuet, Liskerd, Lostwithiel, Truro, Bodmyn, Helston, Saltash, Camelford, Eastloo, Westloo, Prury, Tregny, Kellington, Bossimy, S. Iues, S. Germanes, Meddishole, and S. Mawes: and because Quindec. are ordinarily graunted at Parliaments, together with the Subsidies, I will heere set downe the ordinary rate of them.
Md. de 15. Cornub. in Paroch. subsequent. vt patet. p.
Hund. de Penwith
Paroc. S. Iusti. 2li.11s.8d. S. Hillary 2.18.8
S. Gorian. 8.5.2 Caniborn. 4.2.0
S. Gorgian. 1.15.6 Laundut. 6.16.5
S. Crowen. 2.2.2 Vthno. 0.12.6
S. Michaels. 2.11.3 Germogh. 0.10.8
S. Illogan. 4.7.10 S. Synan. 3.6.0
S. Erly. 3.11.8 S. Maddern. 4.12.0
S. Luduan. 2.16.6 S. Twynnock. 2.5.0
Morueth. 0.17.6 S. Felis. 2.1.2
S. Siluan. 2.12.5 Kedruth. 1.12.5
S. Sancred. 1.14.0 S. Winner. 3.6.0
S. Ey. 3.6.8 S. Pawl. 6.17.0
S. Sennar. 2.11.1 Woluele. 3.5.0
Sum. 81. 8. 6.
Hund. de Kerier.
Wennape. 2.8.0 S. Melor. 2.4.0
S. Martyn. 0.18.8 S. Briack. 2.3.0
S. Gluuiack. 2.2.10 S. Crade. 1.4.6
Constantyn. 3.6.4 Wyneanton. 0.14.8
S. Mawnan. 1.8.0 S. Melan. 2.18.4
S. Stidian. 2.19.4 S. Keyran. 6.8.0
Arwothel. 1.4.9 S. Wynwolny. 0.10.4
S. Landy. 1.10.4 S. Rumon.parua. 0.7.2
S. Mawgan. 1.16.0 Crewenne. 1.0.10
S. Rumon.ma. 1.2.0 S. Sithne. 2.0.0
S. Antony. 0.8.0 S. Ewynne. 0.15.4
Corentun. 0.15.0 Burg. de Helston. 4.6.8
Minster 1.4.6 Germock. 0.10.8
S. Budock.ma. 2.9.0 S. Wendron. 3.12.0
Burgus de Perm. 2.0.0
Hund. de Powder.
Tywardreth 2.15.11 Elerky. 3.6.0
Argallas. 1.14.4 S. Keby. 1.2.1
Burg. de Fowy. 2.8.4 Landreth. 0.17.8
Roche. 2.8.7 Eglosmerther. 0.18.0
Kenwen. 2.19.0 Lanuoreck. 1.10.0
Eglosros 1.16.0 Grogith. 0.14.4
Moresk. 2.0.0 Fowy extra. 1.4.8
Manerium de | S. Sampson. 1.15.0
pen.Kneth & | 0.10.4 S. Stephens. 3.6.3
Restormel. | Gerend. 2.0.0
S. Awstle. 6.14.11 Feock. 1.10.0
Mewan. 1.12.0 Burg. de Lostwi. 8.13.4
Carhayes. 0.11.6 Laurocen. 0.17.0
S. Denis. 1.16.6 Ladock. 2.14.0
Penkeuel. 0.11.8 Lanhorn. 1.14.8
S. Anthonie. 0.12.2 S. Ewe. 1.8.3
Burg. de Mia. 0.5.6 Manerium de |
S. Goran 1.16.0 Towington in | 1.19.0
Burg. de Grand. 0.14.6 P. S. Austle.|
Burg. de Truru. 12.1.10 S. Crede. 2.1.0
S. Ermets 1.14.0 S. Iust. 1.16.0
Landege. 2.7.0 Burg. de Tregony. 1.15.3
Lasullian. 1.10.6 S. Probus. 5.6.0
S. Aleyn. 3.4.6 Calendry 1.0.8
Hund. de Pider.
Lanhidrock. 0.17.8 S. Ermets. 2.2.6
S. Peran. 2.6.8 S. Euoder. 3.0.0
S. Caranto. 2.13.0 S. Petrock mi. 0.6.4
S. Vuel. 1.10.0 Laneuet. 1.10.0
S. Agnes. 1.6.10 S. Ede. 1.12.0
S. Petrock ma. 2.4.10 S. Bruke. 2.7.0
S. Columb ma. 5.13.0 Newlyn. 3.17.4
S. Columb mi. 4.11.0 Maruy. 2.1.0
Burg. de Meddi. 0.8.0 Withiel. 1.6.8
Oldstowe. 1.9.0 S. Colan. 1.4.6
Lanherne. 3.0.0 Cuthbert. 2.0.0
S. Wenne 1.18.0
Hund. de Trigge.
Teth. 2.9.6 Egloshail. 2.3.8
Minuer. 1.15.0 Bliston. 1.17.2
P. Bodmyn ext. 1.16.0 Temple 0.5.0
Brue rode. 1.19.5 S. Laud. 1.6.0
Bur. de Bodmyn. 20.0.0 Ma. de Pennayn. 0.4.10
Maben. 1.10.9 S. Tweir. 1.16.8
S. Eudelian. 1.8.0 Hellond. 0.19.0
Hund. de Lesnewith.
Cleder. 1.16.8 Bur. de Castle |
S. Warburg 1.18.4 Boterel. | 0.7.0
S. Iuliet. 0.14.8 Oterham. 0.19.0
Bur. de Tintagle. 0.13.2 Lanteglos. 1.10.0
Podistok. 4.5.2 S. Genis. 1.14.2
Mihelstowe. 0.19.0 Lesnewith. 1.8.0
Bu. de Camelforth. 0.9.0 Maner. de Tintagle. 1.7.0
Alternon 1.18.6 Minster. 1.4.6
Dauid. 2.6.8 Treneglos. 1.6.8
Treualga. 1.0.0 Athawyn. 1.0.0
Hund. de Lesnewith.
Kilkhamlond. 3.4.4 Bridgerule. 0.12.6
Iacobstow. 1.16.4 Moristow. 3.6.0
Poghwil. 0.19.0 Boyton. 1.9.0
Launcels. 1.8.0 Stratton. 2.19.6
Ouerwynchurch. 2.0.0 Wyke. 1.15.0
Whitston. 1.13.0 Bur. de Kilkhamp. 1.0.2
Hund. de Westwibilsher.
Niot. 2.7.0 Lanteglos. 5.0.0
Cardinham. 1.18.0 Burg. de Liskerd. 6.14.0
Morual. 1.17.0 Reprina. 0.8.0
S. Clere. 2.1.7 Wynnock. 2.0.0
Tallan. 1.12.0 Burg. de Loo. 1.10.0
Lansalwys. 1.9.0 Lanraythew. 1.8.6
Vepe. 1.9.2 Villade. 1.13.0
Maner. de Liskerd. 1.13.0 S. Martyn de Loo. 1.10.0
Dulo. 1.18.6 Brotheck. 0.18.0
Warlegan. 1.2.0 Kayn. 0.8.4
Pleuiul. 2.7.0 Pynnock. 0.19.0
Hund. de Eastwibilshere.
Antony. 1.11.0 Manerium de |
Lawlutton. 1.3.0 Tremeton. | 2.15.4
Southil. 0.18.0 Linkinhorne. 2.0.0
Piderwyn. 2.3.0 Seuiock. 1.4.0
Landilp. 0.17.6 Calstock. 3.6.0
Stoke. 2.9.0 S. Melan. 1.6.0
Minhinet. 4.6.0 Rame. 1.11.0
Egloskery. 2.5.0 S. Iue. 1.19.0
S. Germyns. 6.10.0 S. Dominick. 1.4.0
Bur. de Downuet. 2.16.8 Lawanneck. 1.10.0
Lasant. 1.18.0 Laurake. 1.19.0
S. Iohns. 1.6.10 Burg. de Ash. 2.0.8
S. Stephens of | Pillaton. 0.15.4
Lanceston. | 4.16.0 Boskenna. 0.9.0
Quedock. 1.7.0 Meer. 0.15.0
Sum. tot. 15. & 10. in Cornub. 479.03.
Md. postea sequuntur deductiones & allocat. de eisdem sum. appunctuat. per Edmund. Episc. Exon. & Thom. Bodul- gat tunc vn. milit. praed. Com. in Anno 24. H. 6. vt pt. p. particulariter.
Parochia de | Aldehan. 0.15.0
Menefride. | 1.0.0 Maben. 0.15.0
Helland. 0.15.0 Egloshail 1.10.0
Burg. de Bodmyn. 6.0.0 Temple. 0.3.0
S. Tudy. 0.9.0 S. Bruer. 0.15.0
Sum. 13. 12. 0.
Hund. de Lesnowith.
Cleder. 0.12.0 Oterham. 0.15.0
Burg. de Botriscast. 0.6.0 Aduen. 0.6.0
Pondistoke. 2.0.0 Warburg. 0.10.0
Mynster. 0.12.0 Lesnowith. 0.12.0
Bu. de Camelforth. 0.6.0 Treueglos. 0.18.0
S. Gennys. 0.15.0 Alternon. 0.10.0
S. Dauid. 0.10.0
Sum. 8. 12. 0.
Hund. de Stratton.
Morestow. 1.10.0 Burgus de |
Poughwel. 0.12.0 Kilkampton. | 0.9.0
Lancels. 0.10.0 Merwinchurch. 0.15.0
Boyton. 0.10.0 Whithton. 0.15.0
Kilkampton. 1.0.0 Iacobstow. 0.10.0
Sum. 7. 12. 0
Hund. de East.
Calstok. 1.10.0 Rame 0.15.0
Lawanneck. 1.1.0 Quethiock. 0.12.0
S. Iohns. 0.15.0 S. Domineck. 0.10.0
S. Iues. 1.0.0 Pederwyn. 0.8.0
Minhinet. 3.0.0 S. Germyns. 4.10.0
Manerium de | Antony. 0.15.0
Tremeton. | 1.5.0 Lawhitton. 0.15.0
Burgus de | S. Stephens. 2.0.0
Downeued. | 1.0.0 Laurake. 0.10.0
S. Melan. 1.0.0 Egloskery. 0.15.0
Sum. 22. 1. 0.
Hund. de West.
Burgus de | Lanrethow. 0.10.0
Liskerd. | 1.0.0 S. Vepe. 0.10.0
S. Cleer. 0.10.0 Manerium |
Morual. 0.10.0 de Liskerd. | 0.12.0
Talland. 0.10.0 S. Pynnock. 0.10.0
Parish of Liskerd. 0.18.0 Nyot. 0.10.0
Sum. 7. 10. 0.
Hund. de Penwith.
Luduan. 0.9.0 S. Sencrede. 0.15.0
Camborn. 1.0.0 S. Felix. 0.6.0
S. Senan. 0.13.0 S. Selenan. 0.10.0
S. Gothian. 0.10.0 S. Michaels. 0.10.0
S. Ius t. 0.10.0 S. Pawl. 1.0.0
S. Veryn. 2.0.0 S. Thebut. 1.0.0
S. Wynner. 0.10.0 S. Grey. 0.9.0
Sum. 10. 2. 0.
Hund. de Kerier.
S. Wenep. 0.10.0 S. Constantyn. 0.9.0
Mawnan. 0.6.0 Crade. 0.10.0
Burg. de Helston. 1.10.0 Wynampton. 0.6.0
Melan. 0.10.0 Stedian. 0.9.0
Arwothel. 0.10.0 Ewyn. 0.10.0
Sum. 5. 16. 0.
Hund. de Powder.
Argallas. 0.10.0 Lamorek. 0.10.0
Keby. 0.9.0 S. Sampsons. 0.10.0
Burgus de | S. Gereus. 0.10.0
Truru. | 10.0.0 Burgus de |
Roche. 0.18.0 Lostwithiel. | 8.0.0
Moresk. 0.10.0 Lamhorn. 0.6.0
S. Goran. 0.9.0 Tywardreth. 0.10.0
S. Allen. 0.5.0 S. Stephens. 0.10.0
Illerky. 0.10.0 Eglosros. 0.10.0
Sum. 19. 17. 0.
************************* missing scan *******************88
Hund. de Pider.
Lanhidrok. 0.11.0 S. Petrock minor. 0.6.0
S. Pyran. 0.15.0 S. Petrock maior. 0.10.0
S. Newlyn. 1.10.0 S. Breock. 0.15.0
S. Colan. 0.10.0 Withiel. 0.5.0
Lamhern. 0.10.0 Carnenton. 0.10.0
S. Edy. 0.12.0 Vwel. 0.10.0
S. Enoder. 0.15.0
Sum. tot. deductions. 15. & 10. 113. 1. 6.